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By differential screening of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- activated endothelial cells (ECs), we have identified a cDNA clone that turned out to be a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) gene family. iap genes function to protect cells from undergoing apoptotic death in response to a variety of stimuli. These(More)
BACKGROUND Many cancers spread through lymphatic routes, and mechanistic insights of tumour intravasation into the lymphatic vasculature and targets for intervention are limited. The major emphasis of research focuses currently on the molecular biology of tumour cells, while still little is known regarding the contribution of lymphatics. METHODS Breast(More)
During the inflammatory response, endothelial cells (EC) transiently upregulate a set of genes encoding, among others, cell adhesion molecules and chemotactic cytokines that together mediate the interaction of the endothelium with cells of the immune system. Gene upregulation is mediated predominantly at the transcriptional level and in many cases involves(More)
Gem belongs to the Rad/Gem/Kir (RGK) subfamily of Ras-related GTPases, which also comprises Rem, Rem2 and Ges. The RGK family members Ges and Rem have been shown to produce endothelial cell sprouting and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton upon overexpression. Here we show that high intracellular Gem levels promote profound changes in cell morphology(More)
T cell suppressor factor produced by human glioblastoma cells inhibits T cell proliferation in vitro and more specifically interferes with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent T cell growth. Here we report the purification of this factor from conditioned medium of the human glioblastoma cell line 308. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the 12.5-kd protein(More)
Human glioblastoma cells secrete a peptide, termed glioblastoma-derived T cell suppressor factor (G-TsF), which has suppressive effects on interleukin-2-dependent T cell growth. As shown here, complementary DNA for G-TsF reveals that G-TsF shares 71% amino acid homology with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In analogy to TGF-beta it is apparently(More)
Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (Ox-PAPC) upregulates a spectrum of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules different from those induced by classic inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or lipopolysaccharide. Interestingly, Ox-PAPC also induces the expression of a set of proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Specific signal detection has been a fundamental issue in fluorescence microscopy. In the context of tissue samples, this problem has been even more pronounced, with respect to spectral overlap and autofluorescence. METHODS Recent improvements in confocal laser scanning microscopy combine sophisticated hardware to obtain fluorescence emission(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is the main fibrinolysis inhibitor, and high plasma levels are associated with an increased risk for vascular diseases. Inflammatory cytokines regulate PAI-1 through a hitherto unclear mechanism. Using reporter gene analysis, we could identify a region in the PAI-1 promoter that contributes to basal expression as(More)
Fumaric acid esters are thought to improve psoriasis by altering leukocyte, keratinocyte, and/or endothelial functions. To determine specificity, kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of different fumaric acid esters in their ability to inhibit endothelial cell activation, we analyzed CD62E and CD54 expression in endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. In(More)