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Odors are thought to be represented by a distributed code across the glomerular modules in the olfactory bulb (OB). Here, we optically imaged presynaptic activity in glomerular modules of the zebrafish OB induced by a class of natural odorants (amino acids [AAs]) after labeling of primary afferents with a calcium-sensitive dye. AAs induce complex(More)
Mitral cells (MCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) respond to odors with slow temporal firing patterns. The representation of each odor by activity patterns across the MC population thus changes continuously throughout a stimulus, in an odor-specific manner. In the zebrafish OB, we found that this distributed temporal patterning progressively reduced the(More)
Methods to record action potential (AP) firing in many individual neurons are essential to unravel the function of complex neuronal circuits in the brain. A promising approach is bolus loading of Ca(2+) indicators combined with multiphoton microscopy. Currently, however, this technique lacks cell-type specificity, has low temporal resolution and cannot(More)
Odor information is first represented in the brain by patterns of input activity across the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). To examine how odorants are represented at this stage of olfactory processing, we labeled anterogradely the axons of olfactory receptor neurons with the voltage-sensitive dye Di8-ANEPPQ in zebrafish. The activity induced by(More)
Odorants are first represented in the brain by distributed patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb (OB). Although neurons downstream of sensory inputs respond to odorants with temporally structured activity, sensory inputs to glomeruli are typically described as static maps. Here, we imaged the temporal dynamics of receptor neuron input to the OB with a(More)
In the olfactory bulb (OB) of zebrafish and other species, odors evoke fast oscillatory population activity and specific firing rate patterns across mitral cells (MCs). This activity evolves over a few hundred milliseconds from the onset of the odor stimulus. Action potentials of odor-specific MC subsets phase-lock to the oscillation, defining small and(More)
Learning is mediated by experience-dependent plasticity in neuronal circuits. Activity in neuronal circuits is tightly regulated by different subtypes of inhibitory interneurons, yet their role in learning is poorly understood. Using a combination of in vivo single-unit recordings and optogenetic manipulations, we show that in the mouse basolateral(More)
Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB) by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform(More)
The senses of hearing and balance in vertebrates rely on the sensory hair cells (HCs) of the inner ear. The central element of the HC's transduction apparatus is a mechanically gated ion channel of unknown identity. Here we report that the zebrafish ortholog of Drosophila no mechanoreceptor potential C (nompC), which encodes a transient receptor potential(More)
L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) drive the bulk of voltage-gated Ca2+ entry in vertebrate inner ear hair cells (HCs) and are essential for mammalian auditory processing. LTCC currents have been implicated in neurotransmitter release at the HC afferent active zone, the ribbon synapse. It is likely that LTCCs play a direct role in vesicle fusion; however, the(More)