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RATIONALE The function of Nox4, a source of vascular H(2)O(2), is unknown. Other Nox proteins were identified as mediators of endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE We determined the function of Nox4 in situations of increased stress induced by ischemia or angiotensin II with global and tamoxifen-inducible Nox4(-/-) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Nox4 was highly(More)
BACKGROUND HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to beneficially affect outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that statins exert effects on autonomic function, as assessed by plasma norepinephrine levels, direct recordings of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and baroreflex function. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase or statins have been shown to alleviate endothelial dysfunction. Their effects on constitutive nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system may hypothetically affect the autonomic balance in sympathoexcitatory states, such as chronic heart failure (CHF). To address this issue, simvastatin (SIM) (0.3,(More)
In this review, we put forth the hypothesis that reduction in sympathetic outflow after exercise training of animals with heart failure is mediated by reductions in angiotensin II and in angiotensin type 1 receptors. Furthermore, we provide evidence that exercise training provides for an upregulation of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the(More)
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represent possible complications of medical immunosuppression. Between 2005 and 2010, non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PCP patients admitted to a nephrology unit were analyzed for outcome, CMV comorbidity, and patient-to-patient contacts prior to PCP. In contrast to 2002–2004(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) is a potentially life-threatening complication in renal transplant recipients with increased reports during the past few years. Individual risk factors for susceptibility to PcP are incompletely understood. METHODS We retrospectively analysed 60 cases of confirmed PcP, diagnosed in six German transplant(More)
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with an increase in the production and secretion of various regulatory hormones that are initially beneficial, but become deleterious when elevated for prolonged periods. The neurohumoral excitation that occurs in the CHF state is mediated, in part, by abnormal inhibitory cardiovascular reflexes, such as the(More)
Sympatho-excitation is a hallmark of the chronic heart failure (CHF) state. It has long been assumed that this sympatho-excitation is mediated by a reduction in sensory input from cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptors. However, recent data suggest that these reflexes may only be important in the initiation of the sympatho-excitatory state and may not(More)
Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF). We(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated in chronic heart failure (CHF). In this study, we determined the effects of chronic ET-1 blockade on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious rabbits with pacing-induced CHF. Rabbits were chronically paced at 320--340 beats/min for 3--4 wk until clinical and hemodynamic signs of CHF were present. Resting RSNA and(More)