Rainer Spiegel

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OBJECTIVE The effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on downbeat nystagmus (DBN) were analysed in terms of slow-phase velocity (SPV), stance, locomotion, visual acuity (VA), patient satisfaction and side effects using standardised questionnaires. METHODS Twenty-seven patients with DBN received 5 mg 4-AP four times a day or placebo for 3 days and 10 mg 4-AP(More)
On the basis of reports by patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) that their symptoms were worse during the morning but better during the daytime, we investigated whether the intensity of DBN changes during the daytime. DBN was measured at 9 am, 11 am, and 1 pm. The mean peak slow phase velocity (MPSPV) of DBN was determined in different eye positions, with(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from oscillopsia during head movements. This is secondary to the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex which is responsible for stabilising retinal images during head movements of high frequency or velocity. Previous studies documented decreased visual motion sensitivity in such patients at(More)
OBJECTIVE Animal experiments have demonstrated that aminopyridines increase Purkinje cell excitability, and in clinical studies, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) improved downbeat nystagmus. In this double-blind, prospective, crossover study, the effects of equivalent doses of 4-AP and 3,4-DAP on the slow-phase velocity (SPV) of(More)
We investigated the effects of dalfampridine, the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine, on slow phase velocity (SPV) and visual acuity (VA) in patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and the side effects of the drug. In this proof-of-principle observational study, ten patients received dalfampridine 10 mg bid for 2 weeks. Recordings were conducted at(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study addressed the question whether the composition of supposedly 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' dietary regimes has a calorie-independent short-term effect on biomarkers of metabolic stress and vascular risk in healthy individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS Healthy male volunteers (age 29.5 ± 5.9 years, n = 39) were given a standardized(More)
Baumeister and colleagues underline that individual identification and differentiation of selves are important characteristics for group performance. They name specialization, moral responsibility, and efficiency as vital components of well-functioning groups. In my commentary, I transfer their framework to the group effort within resuscitation teams to(More)
Motion coherence thresholds are consistently higher at lower velocities. In this study we analysed the influence of the position and direction of moving objects on their perception and thereby the influence of gravity. This paradigm allows a differentiation to be made between coherent and randomly moving objects in an upright and a reclining position with a(More)
Resting in an upright position during daytime decreases downbeat nystagmus (DBN). When measured in brightness only, that is, without intermitting exposure to darkness, it does not make a significant difference whether patients have previously rested in brightness or in darkness. In real-world scenarios, people are often exposed to brightness and darkness(More)