Rainer Spiegel

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In a series of experiments using the serial reaction time paradigm, the authors compared the predictions of a powerful associative model of sequence learning (the simple recurrent network; J. L. Elman, 1990) with human performance on the problem devised by A. Maskara and W. Noetzel (1993). Even though the predictions made by the simple recurrent network for(More)
OBJECTIVE The effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on downbeat nystagmus (DBN) were analysed in terms of slow-phase velocity (SPV), stance, locomotion, visual acuity (VA), patient satisfaction and side effects using standardised questionnaires. METHODS Twenty-seven patients with DBN received 5 mg 4-AP four times a day or placebo for 3 days and 10 mg 4-AP(More)
OBJECTIVE Animal experiments have demonstrated that aminopyridines increase Purkinje cell excitability, and in clinical studies, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) improved downbeat nystagmus. In this double-blind, prospective, crossover study, the effects of equivalent doses of 4-AP and 3,4-DAP on the slow-phase velocity (SPV) of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from oscillopsia during head movements. This is secondary to the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex which is responsible for stabilising retinal images during head movements of high frequency or velocity. Previous studies documented decreased visual motion sensitivity in such patients at(More)
As people grow older, their subjective and objective sleep patterns change: sleep is often experienced as less deep, more broken, less refreshing - and these alterations find their objective correlate in polygraphic sleep recordings. Reductions in high amplitude slow wave sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and sleep maintenance are the best documented of(More)
BACKGROUND The intensity of downbeat nystagmus (DBN) decreases during the daytime when the head is in upright position. OBJECTIVE This prospective study investigated whether resting in different head positions (upright, supine, prone) modulates the intensity of DBN after resting. METHODS Eye movements of 9 patients with DBN due to cerebellar (n = 2) or(More)
We investigated the effects of dalfampridine, the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine, on slow phase velocity (SPV) and visual acuity (VA) in patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and the side effects of the drug. In this proof-of-principle observational study, ten patients received dalfampridine 10 mg bid for 2 weeks. Recordings were conducted at(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study addressed the question whether the composition of supposedly 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' dietary regimes has a calorie-independent short-term effect on biomarkers of metabolic stress and vascular risk in healthy individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS Healthy male volunteers (age 29.5 ± 5.9 years, n = 39) were given a standardized(More)