Rainer Spiegel

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OBJECTIVE Animal experiments have demonstrated that aminopyridines increase Purkinje cell excitability, and in clinical studies, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) improved downbeat nystagmus. In this double-blind, prospective, crossover study, the effects of equivalent doses of 4-AP and 3,4-DAP on the slow-phase velocity (SPV) of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from oscillopsia during head movements. This is secondary to the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex which is responsible for stabilising retinal images during head movements of high frequency or velocity. Previous studies documented decreased visual motion sensitivity in such patients at(More)
Resting in an upright position during daytime decreases downbeat nystagmus (DBN). When measured in brightness only, that is, without intermitting exposure to darkness, it does not make a significant difference whether patients have previously rested in brightness or in darkness. In real-world scenarios, people are often exposed to brightness and darkness(More)
Motion coherence thresholds are consistently higher at lower velocities. In this study we analysed the influence of the position and direction of moving objects on their perception and thereby the influence of gravity. This paradigm allows a differentiation to be made between coherent and randomly moving objects in an upright and a reclining position with a(More)
Patients with downbeat nystagmus syndrome suffer from oscillopsia, which leads to an unstable visual perception and therefore impaired visual acuity. The aim of this study was to use real-time computer-based visual feedback to compensate for the destabilizing slow phase eye movements. The patients were sitting in front of a computer screen with the head(More)
We set out to test the hypothesis of right-hemisphere superiority for the implicit detection of a rule. Forty healthy men provided speeded manual responses to randomly presented digits from 1 to 6 (left hand to 1-3, right hand to 4-6). Red digits on trial n signaled that the response on trial n+1 should be made with one hand, blue digits with the other(More)
On the basis of reports by patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) that their symptoms were worse during the morning but better during the daytime, we investigated whether the intensity of DBN changes during the daytime. DBN was measured at 9 am, 11 am, and 1 pm. The mean peak slow phase velocity (MPSPV) of DBN was determined in different eye positions, with(More)
<abs> By 2020, it is estimated that road accidents will have moved from ninth to third in the worldwide ranking of burden of disease, as assessed in the disability adjusted life years (DALY) 1, 2. Therefore, it is vital to find effective methods to enhance road safety. Speed limits and traffic calming have the potential to reduce injuries due to road(More)