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Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition represents the most efficacious treatment approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD) to date. This multiple-dose study has examined the relationship between inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cognitive change (measured by the Computerised(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition at the beginning of the night is one of the most frequently described biologic abnormalities in depression. As REM sleep in animals and humans seems to be facilitated by cholinergic neuronal activity, it has been postulated that REM sleep disinhibition in depression is a consequence of cholinergic neuronal(More)
A novel brain-selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, SDZ ENA 713, is under development for the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer type. To determine the threshold dose for central activity, single doses of the compound were administered to 20 young male volunteers in a double-blind cross-over design and the effects on the sleep electroencephalography(More)
OBJECTIVE The effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on downbeat nystagmus (DBN) were analysed in terms of slow-phase velocity (SPV), stance, locomotion, visual acuity (VA), patient satisfaction and side effects using standardised questionnaires. METHODS Twenty-seven patients with DBN received 5 mg 4-AP four times a day or placebo for 3 days and 10 mg 4-AP(More)
On the basis of reports by patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) that their symptoms were worse during the morning but better during the daytime, we investigated whether the intensity of DBN changes during the daytime. DBN was measured at 9 am, 11 am, and 1 pm. The mean peak slow phase velocity (MPSPV) of DBN was determined in different eye positions, with(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from oscillopsia during head movements. This is secondary to the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex which is responsible for stabilising retinal images during head movements of high frequency or velocity. Previous studies documented decreased visual motion sensitivity in such patients at(More)
We investigated the effects of dalfampridine, the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine, on slow phase velocity (SPV) and visual acuity (VA) in patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and the side effects of the drug. In this proof-of-principle observational study, ten patients received dalfampridine 10 mg bid for 2 weeks. Recordings were conducted at(More)
OBJECTIVE Animal experiments have demonstrated that aminopyridines increase Purkinje cell excitability, and in clinical studies, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) improved downbeat nystagmus. In this double-blind, prospective, crossover study, the effects of equivalent doses of 4-AP and 3,4-DAP on the slow-phase velocity (SPV) of(More)
The administration of 1.0 mg SDZ 210-086, an orally acting muscarinic agonist, shortened rapid-eye movement (REM) latency, increased REM percent of sleep period time and the total duration of REM sleep, and decreased slow-wave sleep in 12 healthy male subjects. The administration of 0.5 mg SDZ 210-086 had no statistically significant effect on sleep(More)