Rainer K. Sachs

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High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans, including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situation is much less clear, but the risks of low-dose radiation are of societal importance in relation to issues as varied as screening tests for cancer, the future of nuclear power,(More)
Fluorescence in situ hybridization data on distances between defined genomic sequences are used to construct a quantitative model for the overall geometric structure of a human chromosome. We suggest that the large-scale geometry during the G0/G1 part of the cell cycle may consist of flexible chromatin loops, averaging approximately 3 million bp, with a(More)
There is strong evidence that biological response to ionizing radiation has a contribution from unirradiated "bystander" cells that respond to signals emitted by irradiated cells. We discuss here an approach incorporating a radiobiological bystander response, superimposed on a direct response due to direct energy deposition in cell nuclei. A quantitative(More)
There is increasing concern regarding radiation-related second-cancer risks in long-term radiotherapy survivors and a corresponding need to be able to predict cancer risks at high radiation doses. Although cancer risks at moderately low radiation doses are reasonably understood from atomic bomb survivor studies, there is much more uncertainty at the high(More)
The possible cancer risks caused by ionizing radiation doses of ~1 mSv or less are too small to be estimated directly from epidemiological data. The linear no-threshold (LNT) approach to estimating such risks involves using epidemiological data at higher (but still low) doses to establish an "anchor point", and then extrapolating the excess cancer risk(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological data show that radiation exposure during childhood is associated with larger cancer risks compared with exposure at older ages. For exposures in adulthood, however, the relative risks of radiation-induced cancer in Japanese atomic bomb survivors generally do not decrease monotonically with increasing age of adult exposure. These(More)
After ionizing radiation has induced double-strand DNA breaks (dsb), misrejoining produces chromosome aberrations. Aberration yields are influenced by "proximity' effects, i.e., by the dependence of misrejoining probabilities on initial dsb separations. We survey proximity effects, emphasizing implications for chromosome aberration-formation mechanisms, for(More)
Enzymatic misrepair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA damage can produce large-scale rearrangements of the genome, such as translocations and dicentrics. These and other chromosome exchange aberrations can cause major phenotypic alterations, including cell death, mutation and neoplasia. Exchange formation requires that two (or more) genomic loci come(More)
PURPOSE To review current opinion on the production and temporal evolution of low-LET radiobiological damage. METHODS Standard cell survival models which model repair/misrepair kinetics in order to quantify dose-response relations and dose-protraction effects are reviewed and interrelated. Extensions of the models to endpoints other than cell survival, to(More)
PURPOSE At present, the linear-quadratic model for cellular response to radiation can incorporate sublethal damage repair and repopulation. We suggest an extension, termed LQR, to include also the other two "Rs" of radiobiology, cell cycle redistribution, and reoxygenation. METHODS AND MATERIALS In this approach, redistribution and reoxygenation are both(More)