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Altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is a postulated mechanism for the pathogenesis of major depression. To mimic the human situation of altered GR function claimed for depression, we generated mouse strains that underexpress or overexpress GR, but maintain the regulatory genetic context controlling the GR gene. To achieve this goal, we used the(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates sensory neuron phenotype by elevated expression of ion channels and receptors contributing to pain. Peripheral opioid antinociception is dependent on sensory neuron mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression, coupling and efficacy. This study investigates the role of NGF in the upregulation of the number and efficacy of sensory(More)
Neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are thought to play an important role in neuronal repair and plasticity. Recent experimental evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of these proteins in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the response of serum NGF and BDNF concentrations to standardized acute(More)
The "neurotrophin hypothesis" of depression predicts that depressive disorders in humans coincide with a decreased activity and/or expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether mice with a reduced BDNF expression due to heterozygous gene disruption demonstrate depression-like neurochemical changes or(More)
In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of(More)
The issue of neurotrophins is recognized as a new lead in the quest for a deeper understanding of mood disorders. This hypothesis has emerged from experimental evidence suggesting that antidepressant drugs might work by a neuroprotective effect through the stimulation of the neurotrophin expression in distinct regions of the CNS. Endogenous levels of BDNF(More)
Several studies investigated the effect of physical exercise on emotional behaviors in rodents; resulting findings however remain controversial. Despite the accepted notion that voluntary exercise alters behavior in the same manners as antidepressant drugs, several studies reported opposite or no effects at all. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of(More)
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in depression and anxiety. Antidepressants and exercise increase BDNF expression, and both have an antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. To further characterize the association of anxiety, BDNF and exercise, we studied panic disorder patients (n=12) and individually matched(More)
RATIONALE Converging lines of evidence point to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Recently, it was shown that the Val allele of the BDNF Val66Met substitution polymorphism showed a significant association with higher mean neuroticism scores of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in healthy(More)
Sympathetic and neural-crest derived sensory neurons consisting of unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers are known to be affected at an early stage in diabetes mellitus (DM). Since these peripheral neurons need nerve growth factor (NGF) for their development and maintenance of function in adulthood, changes in endogenous NGF levels could be of relevance(More)