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mRNP remodeling events required for the transition of an mRNA from active translation to degradation are currently poorly understood. We identified protein factors potentially involved in this transition, which are present in mammalian P bodies, cytoplasmic foci enriched in 5' --> 3' mRNA degrading enzymes. We demonstrate that human P bodies contain the(More)
Advances in the specific fluorescent labeling of chromatin in fixed and living human cells in combination with three-dimensional (3D) and 4D (space plus time) fluorescence microscopy and image analysis have opened the way for detailed studies of the dynamic, higher-order architecture of chromatin in the human cell nucleus and its potential role in gene(More)
A programmable array microscope (PAM) incorporates a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed in the primary image plane of a widefield microscope, where it is used to define patterns of illumination and/or detection. We describe the characteristics of a special type of PAM collecting two images simultaneously. The conjugate image (Ic) is formed by light(More)
For centuries, cell biology has been based on light microscopy and at the same time been limited by its optical resolution. However, several new technologies have been developed recently that bypass this limit. These new super-resolution technologies are either based on tailored illumination, nonlinear fluorophore responses, or the precise localization of(More)
Cajal bodies (CBs) are subnuclear organelles of animal and plant cells. A role of CBs in the assembly and maturation of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) has been proposed but is poorly understood. Here we have addressed the question where U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP assembly occurs in the nucleus. The U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP is a central unit of the spliceosome(More)
EphAs and ephrinAs are expressed in multiple areas of the developing brain in overlapping countergradients, notably in the retina and tectum. Here they are involved in targeting retinal axons to their correct topographic position in the tectum. We have used truncated versions of EphA3, single-amino acid point mutants of ephrinA5 and fluorescence resonance(More)
We describe a localization microscopy analysis method that is able to extract results in live cells using standard fluorescent proteins and xenon arc lamp illumination. Our Bayesian analysis of the blinking and bleaching (3B analysis) method models the entire dataset simultaneously as being generated by a number of fluorophores that may or may not be(More)
In microscopy, single fluorescence point sources can be localized with a precision several times greater than the resolution limit of the microscope. We show that the intermittent fluorescence or 'blinking' of quantum dots can analyzed by an Independent Component Analysis so as to identify the light emitted by each individual nanoparticle, localize it(More)
The resolution of optical microscopy is limited by the numerical aperture and the wavelength of light. Many strategies for improving resolution such as 4Pi and I5M have focused on an increase of the numerical aperture. Other approaches have based resolution improvement in fluorescence microscopy on the establishment of a nonlinear relationship between local(More)
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) microscopy was used to determine the kinetic properties of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins in whole living Drosophila organisms (embryos) and tissues (wing imaginal discs and salivary glands). PcG genes are essential genes in higher eukaryotes responsible for the maintenance of the spatially distinct(More)