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A current paradigm states that monocytes circulate freely and patrol blood vessels but differentiate irreversibly into dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages upon tissue entry. Here we show that bona fide undifferentiated monocytes reside in the spleen and outnumber their equivalents in circulation. The reservoir monocytes assemble in clusters in the cords of(More)
BACKGROUND Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular events; however, mechanisms of calcification in atherosclerosis remain obscure. METHODS AND RESULTS We tested the hypothesis that inflammation promotes osteogenesis in atherosclerotic plaques using in vivo molecular imaging in apolipoprotein E-/- mice (20 to 30 weeks old, n=35). A(More)
Cancer relies upon frequent or abnormal cell division, but how the tumor microenvironment affects mitotic processes in vivo remains unclear, largely due to the technical challenges of optical access, spatial resolution, and motion. We developed high-resolution in vivo microscopy methods to visualize mitosis in a murine xenograft model of human cancer. Using(More)
AIMS Westernized countries face a growing burden of cardiovascular calcification and osteoporosis. Despite its vast clinical significance, the precise nature of this reciprocal relationship remains obscure. We hypothesize that cardiovascular calcification progresses with inflammation and inversely correlates with bone tissue mineral density (TMD). METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Cathepsin K (CatK), a potent elastinolytic and collagenolytic cysteine protease, likely participates in the evolution and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. To assess better the biology of CatK activity in vivo, we developed a novel near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe for imaging of CatK and evaluated it in mouse and human(More)
It has been estimated that up to 30% of detectable polyps in patients regress spontaneously. One major challenge in the evaluation of effective therapy of cancer is the readout for tumor regression and favorable biological response to therapy. Inducible near infra-red (NIR) fluorescent probes were utilized to visualize intestinal polyps of mice hemizygous(More)
Quantification of cell-cycle state at a single-cell level is essential to understand fundamental three-dimensional (3D) biological processes such as tissue development and cancer. Analysis of 3D in vivo images, however, is very challenging. Today's best practice, manual annotation of select image events, generates arbitrarily sampled data distributions,(More)
Although viridins like wortmannin (Wm) have long been examined as anticancer agents, their ability to self-activate has only recently been recognized. Here, we describe the cytostatic effects of a self-activating viridin (SAV), which is an inactive, polymeric prodrug. SAV self-activates to generate a bioactive, fluorescent viridin NBD-Wm with a half-time of(More)
A number of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors are currently in development, yet it has been difficult to visualize BTK expression and pharmacological inhibition in vivo in real time. We synthesized a fluorescent, irreversible BTK binder based on the drug Ibrutinib and characterized its behavior in cells and in vivo. We show a 200 nM affinity of the(More)
Therapeutic nanoparticles (TNPs) aim to deliver drugs more safely and effectively to cancers, yet clinical results have been unpredictable owing to limited in vivo understanding. Here we use single-cell imaging of intratumoral TNP pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to better comprehend their heterogeneous behaviour. Model TNPs comprising a fluorescent(More)