Learn More
This review updates and extends earlier Consensus Reports related to current basic and escalating immunomodulatory treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent literature has been extracted for new evidence from randomized controlled trials, open treatment studies and reported expert opinion, both in original articles and reviews, and evaluates(More)
In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) myelin-specific T lymphocytes attack the myelinated tissue of the central nervous system (CNS). In the Lewis rat, EAE as a rule has an acute, monophasic course. With spontaneous clinical recovery the inflammatory CNS infiltrates are cleared from the nervous tissue within a few days. This is well in line(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that takes a relapsing-remitting or a progressive course (reviewed in Refs 1,2). Its counterpart in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) (reviewed in Ref. 3). In addition, there are acute,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the rate of seropositivity of anti-JC virus (JCV) antibodies in a German multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort treated with natalizumab in the postmarketing setting and to assess anti-JCV serostatus in samples obtained before diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS This was a blinded, retrospective(More)
The adhesive cell surface molecule P(0) is the most abundant glycoprotein in peripheral nerve myelin and fulfills pivotal functions during myelin formation and maintenance. Mutations in the corresponding gene cause hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In mice heterozygously deficient in P(0) (P(0)(+/-) mice), an established animal model for a subtype of(More)
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a target for heterogenous immune attacks mediated by different components of the systemic immune compartment. T cells, B cells, and macrophages can interact with endogenous, partially immune-competent glial cells and contribute to local inflammation. Cellular and humoral immune functions of Schwann cells have been well(More)
Variation in the genes encoding the interleukin (IL) 7 and IL2 receptor alpha chains (IL7RA, IL2RA) was recently found associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the role of these two genes in a large German MS case-control cohort. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL7RA and four in IL2RA were genotyped in 1319 MS patients and 908(More)
BACKGROUND A number of enzymatic techniques have recently been developed to detect DNA fragmentation in apoptosis at the cellular level. However, since DNA fragmentation also occurs in cellular necrosis, we studied to which extent the use of DNA polymerase (nick translation) or terminal transferase (tailing) allows the differentiation between(More)
BACKGROUND A 24-week phase II trial has shown that 0.3 mg of laquinimod given daily to patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was well tolerated and reduced the formation of active lesions. We assessed the effect of oral daily 0.3 and 0.6 mg laquinimod on MRI-monitored disease activity in a 36-week double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb(More)
Fumaric acid was originally therapeutically used in psoriasis. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated immunomodulatory but also neuroprotective effects for FAE. Clinical studies in psoriasis showed a reduction of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes due to the ability of FAE to induce apoptosis. In vitro studies with the ester dimethylfumarate (DMF)(More)