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Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related degenerative disorders of the human brain. Both diseases involve multiple neuronal systems and are the consequences of cytoskeletal abnormalities which gradually develop in only a small number of neuronal types. In AD, susceptible neurons produce neurofibrillary tangles(More)
Impairment of cholinergic transmission and decreased numbers of nicotinic binding sites are well-known features accompanying the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to elucidate the underlying cause of this cholinoceptive dysfunction, the expression of two pharmacologically different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)(More)
Cerebral capillaries represent a major interface between the general circulation and the central nervous system and are responsible for sufficient and selective nutrient transport to the brain. Structural damage or dysfunctioning carrier systems of such an active barrier leads to compromised nutrient trafficking. Subsequently, a decreased nutrient(More)
The amygdala undergoes severe pathological changes during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are distributed in a specific manner throughout the nuclear complex. The lesional pattern displays only minor interindividual variation. The most prominent changes occur in the accessory cortical and central nuclei. The cortical,(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder in which predisposed neuronal types in specific regions of the human peripheral, enteric, and central nervous systems become progressively involved. A staging procedure for the PD-related inclusion body pathology (i.e., Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies) in the brain proposes that the pathological process(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are often subject to vascular dysfunction besides their specific CNS pathology, which warrants further examination of the interaction between vascular factors and the development of dementia. The association of decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) or hypertension with AD has been a target of growing interest. Parallel with(More)
Cholinergic fibers from the basal forebrain are known to contact cholinoceptive cortical pyramidal neurons. Recent electrophysiological studies have revealed that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are also present in human cerebrocortical interneurons. A direct visualization of nicotinic receptor subunits in cortical interneurons has, however, not yet been(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a polyglutamine disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the coding region of a gene encoding ataxin-3. To study putative alterations of gene expression induced by expanded ataxin-3, we performed PCR-based cDNA subtractive hybridization in a cell culture model of SCA3. In rat mesencephalic CSM14.1 cells stably(More)
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is accompanied by a marked decrease of cerebrocortical nicotinic receptors. To study the putative site of impaired receptor synthesis, frontal cortices of Parkinson patients with cognitive dysfunction have been screened for the expression of the nicotinic receptor alpha 4 subunit gene. Quantitative assessment of(More)