Rahul K Shah

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OBJECTIVE To review the presentation and natural history of children with vascular rings and present management guidelines. METHODS Retrospective study of tertiary care pediatric medical center charts from 1991 to 2002. RESULTS There were 37 males and 27 females with a diagnosis of vascular rings. At presentation, 91% of patients had airway symptoms and(More)
The development of the middle and inner ear highlights the intricacy of embryology. As early as 3 weeks after fertilization, the inner ear begins taking form. This process, along with development of the middle ear, continues throughout gestation. At birth, the middle ear, inner ear, and associated structures are almost adult size. An understanding of the(More)
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