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BACKGROUND The extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and 2 (ERK1/2) proteins play an important role in cancer cell proliferation and survival. ERK1/2 proteins also are important for normal cell functions. Thus, anti-cancer therapies that block all ERK1/2 signaling may result in undesirable toxicity to normal cells. As an alternative, we have used(More)
The origin of the unusual regioselectivity of heme oxygenation, i.e. the oxidation of heme to delta-biliverdin (70%) and beta-biliverdin (30%), that is exhibited by heme oxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pa-HO) has been studied by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Whereas resonance Raman indicates that the heme-iron ligation in(More)
Heme oxygenases catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron while playing a critical role in mammalian heme homeostasis. Pathogenic bacteria such as Neisseriae meningitidis also produce heme oxygenase as part of a mechanism to mine host iron. The key step in heme oxidation is the regioselective oxidation of the heme(More)
Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway has been implicated in mediating a diverse array of cellular functions including cell differentiation, proliferation, and inflammatory responses. In this review, we will discuss approaches to identify inhibitors of ERK proteins through targeting ATP-dependent and ATP-independent(More)
We show bending of light on the same side of the normal in a free-standing corrugated metal film under bidirectional illumination. Coherent perfect absorption (CPA) is exploited to suppress the specular zeroth order leading to effective back-bending of light into the "-1" order, while the "+1" order is resonant with the surface mode. The effect is shown to(More)
Classification is an important problem in data mining. Under the guise of supervised learning, classification has been studied extensively by the AI community as a possible solution to the " knowledge acquisition " or " knowledge extraction " problem. Briefly, the input to a classifier is a training set of records, each of which is a tuple of attribute(More)
UNLABELLED Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) are well-defined, highly branched, nanoscale macromolecules with numerous active amine groups on the surface. PAMAM dendrimer can enhance the solubility of hydrophobic drugs, and with numerous reactive groups on the surface PAMAM dendrimer can be engineered with various functional groups for specific targeting(More)