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Simulating the electric field-driven motion of rigid or deformable bodies in fluid media requires the solution of coupled equations of electrodynamics and hydrodynamics. In this work, we present a numerical method for treating such equations of electrohydrodynamics in an immersed body framework. In our approach, the electric field and fluid equations are(More)
While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the(More)
Examples of animals evolving similar traits despite the absence of that trait in the last common ancestor, such as the wing and camera-type lens eye in vertebrates and invertebrates, are called cases of convergent evolution. Instances of convergent evolution of locomotory patterns that quantitatively agree with the mechanically optimal solution are very(More)
Nearly eighty years ago, Gray reported that the drag power experienced by a dolphin was larger than the estimated muscle power - this is termed as Gray's paradox. We provide a fluid mechanical perspective of this paradox. The viewpoint that swimmers necessarily spend muscle energy to overcome drag in the direction of swimming needs revision. For example, in(More)
For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously(More)
Which animals use their energy better during movement? One metric to answer this question is the energy cost per unit distance per unit weight. Prior data show that this metric decreases with mass, which is considered to imply that massive animals are more efficient. Although useful, this metric also implies that two dynamically equivalent animals of(More)
Supporting Information: Convergent evolution of mechanically optimal locomotion in aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates Rahul Bale, Izaak D. Neveln, Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla, Malcolm A. MacIver1,2,3,∗, Neelesh A. Patankar1,∗ 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA 2 Department of Biomedical Engineering,(More)
What wavelengths do undulatory swimmers use during propulsion? In this work we find that a wide range of body/caudal fin (BCF) swimmers, from larval zebrafish and herring to fully-grown eels, use specific wavelength (ratio of wavelength to tail amplitude of undulation) values that fall within a relatively narrow range. The possible emergence of this(More)
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