Raheema Muhammad

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This report describes a new method for estimating the retention of selected mainstream smoke constituents in the respiratory tract of adult smokers during cigarette smoking. Both particulate-phase (PP) constituents including nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), two tobacco-specific nitrosamines(More)
Alkylating agents occur in the environment and are formed endogenously. Tobacco smoke contains a variety of alkylating agents or precursors including, among others, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide. We developed and validated a method for the simultaneous determination of(More)
Urinary excretion of nicotine and its five major metabolites (nicotine-N-glucuronide, cotinine, cotinine-N-glucuronide, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-O-glucuronide), expressed as nicotine equivalents (NE), has been used as a biomarker of smoking-related nicotine exposure. In this open-label, single center study, we investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking has been shown to influence the tone of the autonomic nervous system as reflected by heart rate variability (HRV). To date, no information is available as to whether 24-hour HRV might differentiate users of different tobacco products. OBJECTIVE To assess the differences in HRV derived from the 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG) following(More)
The tobacco-specific nitrosamine N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1). Assessing the tobacco smoke-related exposure to NNN by suitable biomarkers is of interest for risk evaluation. Recently, NNN and NNN-N-glucuronide have been quantified in urine of smokers. However, it is unknown what percentage of the absorbed dose of NNN(More)
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