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Recent research in the field of nanometer-scale electronics has focused on the operating principles of small-scale devices and schemes to realize useful circuits. In contrast to established "top-down" fabrication techniques, molecular self-assembly is emerging as a "bottom-up" approach for fabricating nanostructured materials. Biological macromolecules,(More)
The gut microbiota is a complex consortium of microorganisms with the ability to influence important aspects of host health and development. Harnessing this "microbial organ" for biomedical applications requires clarifying the degree to which host and bacterial factors act alone or in combination to govern the stability of specific lineages. To address this(More)
pH sensing is crucial for survival of most organisms, yet the molecular basis of such sensing is poorly understood. Here, we present an atomic resolution structure of the periplasmic portion of the acid-sensing chemoreceptor, TlpB, from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. The structure reveals a universal signaling fold, a PAS domain, with a molecule(More)
Imaging membrane dynamics is an important goal, motivated by the abundance of biochemical and biophysical events that are orchestrated at, or by, cellular membranes. The short length scales, fast timescales, and environmental requirements of membrane phenomena present challenges to imaging experiments. Several technical advances offer means to overcome(More)
The two-dimensional fluidity of lipid bilayers enables the motion of membrane-bound macromolecules and is therefore crucial to biological function. Microrheological methods that measure fluid viscosity via the translational diffusion of tracer particles are challenging to apply and interpret for membranes, due to uncertainty about the local environment of(More)
A family of structurally related intrinsic membrane proteins (facilitative glucose transporters) catalyzes the movement of glucose across the plasma membrane of animal cells. Evidence indicates that these proteins show a common structural motif where approximately 50% of the mass is embedded in lipid bilayer (transmembrane domain) in 12 alpha-helices(More)
Lipid bilayers provide the structural framework for cellular membranes, and their character as two-dimensional fluids enables the mobility of membrane macromolecules. Though the existence of membrane fluidity is well established, the nature of this fluidity remains poorly characterized. Three-dimensional fluids as diverse as chocolates and cytoskeletal(More)
Cellular membranes exhibit a variety of controlled curvatures, with filopodia, microvilli, and mitotic cleavage furrows being only a few of many examples. Coupling between local curvature and chemical composition in membranes could provide a means of mechanically controlling the spatial organization of membrane components. Although this concept has surfaced(More)
We introduce a simple intermembrane junction system in which to explore pattern and structure formation by membrane-bound proteins. The junction consists of a planar lipid bilayer to which one species of protein (an IgG antibody) is bound, forming a 2D, compressible fluid. Upon the adhesion of a second lipid bilayer, the formerly uniformly distributed(More)
The sculpting of membranes into dynamic, curved shapes is central to intracellular cargo trafficking. Though the generation of membrane curvature during trafficking necessarily involves both lipids and membrane-associated proteins, current mechanistic views focus primarily on the formation of rigid cages and curved scaffolds by protein assemblies. Here we(More)