Rafik Menasria

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We evaluated the effects of agonists and antagonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 in comparison with a TLR3 agonist in a mouse model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). BALB/c mice received a single intranasal dose of either a TLR3 agonist (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid; PIC), TLR9 agonists (oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1585, 1826(More)
The added benefit of combining valacyclovir (VACV), an antiviral agent, with etanercept (ETA), an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibody, for the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with 1.85 × 104 plaque forming units of HSV-1. Groups of mice(More)
Sediment toxicity in the Gironde Estuary, France, a site contaminated by such trace metals as Cd, Cu, and Zn, was examined monthly from March to October 1997, using concurrently geochemical procedures to assess the mobility of contaminants and ecotoxicity tests with invertebrate larvae (the oyster Crassostrea gigas, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, and(More)
The role played by resident microglia and by the infiltration of peripheral monocytes/macrophages in the innate immune response during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis was evaluated in mice deficient for the CCR2 and CX3CR1 receptors. CCR2(-/-), CX3CR1(-/-) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) male mice were infected intranasally with 7×10(5) p.f.u.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RNA helicases (RLHs) are important cell sensors involved in the immunological control of viral infections through production of type I interferon (IFN). The impact of a deficiency in the TRIF and IPS-1 adaptor proteins, respectively, implicated in TLR3 and RLH signaling pathways, was investigated during herpes simplex virus 1(More)
The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras(More)
Despite antiviral therapy, the mortality rate of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) remains high and many surviving patients harbor neurological sequelae. Although viral replication is responsible for substantial neurological damages, an exaggerated inflammatory response could also contribute to this process. Artesunate (ART) and rapamycin (RAPA) have(More)
CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several(More)
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes, including monocytes. Signalling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocyte trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)(More)
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