Rafidah Md Noor

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In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the(More)
In the autonomous environment of Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET), vehicles randomly move with high speed and rely on each other for successful data transmission process. The routing can be difficult or impossible to predict in such intermittent vehicles connectivity and highly dynamic topology. The existing routing solutions do not consider the knowledge(More)
Ant-based algorithms simulate the cooperative behaviour of real ants in finding food resources. A significant number of studies have focused on the self-organised behaviour of ants in the natural environment to develop effective systems for dynamic problems. Ant-based systems have special properties such as scalability, adaptability, and dynamicity, which(More)
Image splicing is a common operation in image forgery. Different techniques of image splicing detection have been utilized to regain people's trust. This study introduces a texture enhancement technique involving the use of fractional differential masks based on the Machado entropy. The masks slide over the tampered image, and each pixel of the tampered(More)
Digital image forgery is becoming easier to perform because of the rapid development of various manipulation tools. Image splicing is one of the most prevalent techniques. Digital images had lost their trustability, and researches have exerted considerable effort to regain such trustability by focusing mostly on algorithms. However, most of the proposed(More)
The rapid development of smartphone technologies have resulted in the evolution of mobile botnets. The implications of botnets have inspired attention from the academia and the industry alike, which includes vendors, investors, hackers, and researcher community. Above all, the capability of botnets is uncovered through a wide range of malicious activities,(More)
Vehicle traffic congestion leads to air pollution, driver frustration, and costs billions of dollars annually in fuel consumption. Finding a proper solution to vehicle congestion is a considerable challenge due to the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the network topology of vehicular environments, especially in urban areas. Instead of using static(More)
Variable speed limits (VSLs) as a mean for enhancing road traffic safety are studied for decades to modify the speed limit based on the prevailing road circumstances. In this study the pros and cons of VSL systems and their effects on traffic controlling efficiency are summarized. Despite the potential effectiveness of utilizing VSLs, we have witnessed that(More)