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Functional impairment of antigen-specific T cells is a defining characteristic of many chronic infections, but the underlying mechanisms of T-cell dysfunction are not well understood. To address this question, we analysed genes expressed in functionally impaired virus-specific CD8 T cells present in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic(More)
Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells in mice. Blockade of this pathway using antibodies against the(More)
A major unanswered question is what distinguishes the majority of activated CD8 T cells that die after an acute viral infection from the small fraction (5-10%) that survive to become long-lived memory cells. In this study we show that increased expression of the interleukin 7 receptor alpha-chain (IL-7Ralpha) identifies the effector CD8 T cells that will(More)
Two seemingly unrelated hallmarks of memory CD8(+) T cells are cytokine-driven proliferative renewal after pathogen clearance and a latent effector program in anticipation of rechallenge. Memory CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells share cytotoxic potential and dependence on the growth factor interleukin 15. We now show that mice with compound mutations(More)
Chronic viral infections often result in T cell exhaustion. To determine the molecular signature of exhaustion, we compared the gene-expression profiles of dysfunctional lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-specific CD8(+) T cells from chronic infection to functional LCMV-specific effector and memory CD8(+) T cells generated after acute infection.(More)
Memory CD8 T cells can be divided into two subsets, central (T(CM)) and effector (T(EM)), but their lineage relationships and their ability to persist and confer protective immunity are not well understood. Our results show that T(CM) have a greater capacity than T(EM) to persist in vivo and are more efficient in mediating protective immunity because of(More)
We examined the regulation of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice. Our study shows that within the same persistently infected host, different mechanisms can operate to silence antiviral T cell responses; CD8 T cells specific to one dominant viral epitope were deleted, whereas CD8 T(More)
A major challenge in vaccinology is to prospectively determine vaccine efficacy. Here we have used a systems biology approach to identify early gene 'signatures' that predicted immune responses in humans vaccinated with yellow fever vaccine YF-17D. Vaccination induced genes that regulate virus innate sensing and type I interferon production. Computational(More)
Memory CD8 T cells are a critical component of protective immunity, and inducing effective memory T-cell responses is a major goal of vaccines against chronic infections and tumours. Considerable effort has gone into designing vaccine regimens that will increase the magnitude of the memory response, but there has been minimal emphasis on developing(More)
An important question in memory development is understanding the differences between effector CD8 T cells that die versus effector cells that survive and give rise to memory cells. In this study, we provide a comprehensive phenotypic, functional, and genomic profiling of terminal effectors and memory precursors. Using killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 as(More)