Raffi Avakian

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OBJECTIVE To evaluate our early experience with neoadjuvant therapy (sunitinib or sorafenib) in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), to explore the effect on both tumour biology and potential for downstaging advanced tumours, as systemic therapy for RCC has historically resulted in little if any primary tumour response, but recent experience with targeted(More)
The study was performed to determine factors affecting successful sperm retrieval by testicular sperm extraction in patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome (KS). From May 2001 to February 2007, 27 azoospermic patients were diagnosed as having nonmosaic KS. All patients underwent sperm testicular extraction. Patient's age, testicular volume, serum(More)
BACKGROUND The occurrence of positive surgical margins (PSMs) after partial nephrectomy (PN) is rare, and little is known about their natural history. OBJECTIVE To identify predictive factors of cancer recurrence and related death in patients having a PSM following PN. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Some 111 patients with a PSM were identified from a(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated urinary collecting system invasion as a prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 1,124 patients who underwent nephrectomy for a renal tumor at 5 European centers were included in this retrospective study. Several variables were analyzed including urinary collecting system invasion, age, sex, TNM(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this article is to report our experience concerning the indications and results for combined liver-kidney transplantation in our centre. MATERIAL AND METHOD From July 1991 to October 2006, 26 patients underwent combined liver-kidney transplantation in our establishment. This group comprised 16 men and 10 women with a mean age of(More)
Gradually accumulating subconvulsive doses of metrazol give rise to behavioral and electrographic effects close to petit mal epilepsy: slow negative waves and spike-wave complexes on EEG, frozen and myoclonic jerks. Intensification of monoaminergic transmission with apomorphine, DOPA or 5-hydroxytryptophan attenuates, but inhibition (chlorpromazine,(More)
A single or rhythmical (1-3/sec) stimulation of the caudate nucleus in unrestrained rats facilitated formation of slow negative waves and the spike-wave complexes in the EEG of the sensory-motor cortex and contralateral neostriatum, as well as development of behavioral disturbances due to subseisure doses of pentylentetrazol. During the low-frequency(More)
The paper is concerned with a clinico-experimental study of the influence of intesified activity in the neostriatum on the EEG indices which may appear during the introduction of increased doses of corazol. In 10 cases with different forms of parkinsonism there was a much easier appearance of clinical and EEG manifestations of convulsive activity, than in(More)
In gradual cumulation of subconvulsive doses of corasole in mice there are certain changes of behaviour and electrographical signs which are close to "petit mal": slow negative waves and peak-wave complexes on the EEG, myoclonic jerks. An increase of monoaminergic transmission of apomorphine, DOPA, or 5--hydroxyhyptophane weakens the preconvulsive effect of(More)