Raffaello Castoria

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The infection of stored apples by the fungus Penicillium expansum causes the contamination of fruits and fruit-derived products with the mycotoxin patulin, which is a major issue in food safety. Fungal attack can be prevented by beneficial microorganisms, so-called biocontrol agents. Previous time-course thin layer chromatography analyses showed that the(More)
Patulin is a mycotoxin that contaminates pome fruits and derived products worldwide. Basidiomycete yeasts belonging to the subphylum Pucciniomycotina have been identified to have the ability to degrade this molecule efficiently and have been explored through different approaches to understand this degradation process. In this study, Sporobolomyces sp.(More)
The red yeasts of the Pucciniomycotina have rarely been transformed with DNA molecules. Transformation methods were recently developed for a species of Sporobolomyces, based on selection using uracil auxotrophs and plasmids carrying the wild-type copies of the URA3 and URA5 genes. However, these plasmids were ineffective in the transformation of closely(More)
The Pucciniomycotina is an important subphylum of basidiomycete fungi but with limited tools to analyze gene functions. Transformation protocols were established for a Sporobolomyces species (strain IAM 13481), the first Pucciniomycotina species with a completed draft genome sequence, to enable assessment of gene function through phenotypic characterization(More)
ABSTRACT We detected the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion ( O.(-) (2)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in apple wounds 2 immediately after wounding, and assessed the relationships between (i) timely colonization of apple wounds by biocontrol yeasts, (ii) resistance of these microorganisms to oxidative stress caused by ROS,(More)
The occurrence of nine mycotoxins and of contamination by pre- and postharvest fungal pathogens of cereals was investigated in samples of stored Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccon Schrank (emmer), and Triticum spelta L. (spelt). In Italy, all three species are collectively referred to as farro. The samples examined were harvested in summer 2000 from(More)
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold of stored pome fruits, and several other species of filamentous fungi. This mycotoxin has genotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic effects in mammals, and its presence in pome fruits and derived products represents a serious health hazard. Biocontrol agents in the(More)
Wine contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) is due to the attack of wine grapes by ochratoxigenic Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus spp. section Nigri. Four A. pullulans strains, AU14-3-1, AU18-3B, AU34-2, and LS30, are resistant to and actively degrade ochratoxin A in vitro. The less toxic ochratoxin alpha and the aminoacid L-beta-phenylalanine were(More)
Forty-nine compounds currently used as additives in foods were tested in combination with three biocontrol agents, the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cryptococcus laurentii, and the yeastlike fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, to increase their antagonistic activity against Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold on apples. Twelve additives(More)
ABSTRACT Contamination of apples (Malus domestica) and derived juices with fungicide residues and patulin produced by Penicillium expansum are major issues of food safety. Biocontrol agents represent an alternative or supplement to chemicals for disease control. Our data show that these microbes could also contribute to actively decreasing patulin(More)