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SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, a model for studying neuronal differentiation, are able to differentiate into either cholinergic or dopaminergic/adrenergic phenotypes depending on media conditions. Using this system, we asked whether guanosine (Guo) or guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) are able to drive differentiation towards one particular phenotype.(More)
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) salts (hydrochloride and sulfate) are commonly used as nasal and paranasal decongestants by scuba divers. Anecdotal reports from the Divers Alert Network suggest that taking PSE prior to diving while breathing pure O₂ increases the risk for CNS oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT), which manifests as seizures. We hypothesized that high doses of(More)
Diminished hippocampal volume occurs in the anterior segment of some schizophrenic patients, and in the posterior segment in others. The significance of hippocampal pathology in general and these segmental differences in specific is not known. Several lines of evidence suggest anterior hippocampal pathology underlies the life-threatening hyponatremia seen(More)
Central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT) seizures occur with little or no warning, and no effective mitigation strategy has been identified. Ketogenic diets (KD) elevate blood ketones and have successfully treated drug-resistant epilepsy. We hypothesized that a ketone ester given orally as R,S-1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester (BD-AcAc(2)) would(More)
The ketogenic diet is known to have an anti-epileptic effect; in fact it is currently used to treat drug resistant epilepsies. The efficacy of this diet is thought to be correlated to the elevation of blood ketone bodies. Because of problems with compliance to this diet, there is an interest in evaluating alternative pharmacological treatments that can have(More)
The neuronal Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP43), also known as B-50 or neuromodulin, is involved in mechanisms controlling pathfinding and branching of neurons during development and regeneration. For many years this protein was classified as neuron-specific, but recent evidences suggest that a) GAP43 is expressed in the nervous system not only in(More)
PURPOSE Previous studies showed that a single oral administration of a synthetic ketone ester (1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester, BD-AcAc2) could elevate blood ketones with promising acute anti-epileptic effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the tolerability of a prolonged administration of BD-AcAc2 and the anti-epileptic efficacy of such(More)
AIM In-water pre-breathing oxygen at various depths reduces decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation, but it could induce side effects such as oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-water pre-breathing oxygen, at different depths, on the oxidative status and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i) of(More)
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)) stimulates presumptive central CO2-chemoreceptor neurons, increases minute ventilation (V(min)), decreases heart rate (HR) and, if breathed sufficiently long, produces central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT; i.e., seizures). The risk of seizures when breathing HBO(2) is variable between individuals and its onset is(More)
Depending on the absolute altitude and the duration of exposure, a high altitude environment induces various cellular effects that are strictly related to changes in oxidative balance. In this study, we used in vitro isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes as biosensors to test the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on seven climbers by measuring the functional(More)