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Objective: This study investigated the possible effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) on human psychomotor performance and subjective feelings important for the safety of skilled performance. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers, six males and six females, aged 22–36 years, participated as subjects. Drugs and placebo were administered according to a(More)
A simple, sensitive and reproducible method was developed for the determination of lamotrigine in whole blood with on-line solid phase extraction followed by HPLC separation with UV detection. Whole blood samples were diluted 1:1 with water and then injected directly on a clean-up column dry-packed with 40microm C8 silica and separated on a C18(More)
The main importance in age estimation lies in the assessment of criminal liability and protection of unaccompanied minor immigrants, when their age is unknown. Under Italian law, persons are not criminally responsible before they reach the age of 14. The age of 18 is important when deciding whether juvenile or adult law must be applied. In the case of(More)
Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic. The misuse of ketamine as a recreational drug has increased over the last decade, especially in rave parties or clubs. Short-term ketamine pilot protocols have been undertaken for treatment-resistant depressive clients. In this study, we review and comment on the evidence relating to the potential of ketamine as a(More)
A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the determination of therapeutic levels of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine samples is described. GHB is converted to its lactonic form gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) which is extracted from biological fluids after the addition of the internal standard delta-valerolactone. Final GC-MS(More)
While noting that there is no international scientific or legislative uniformity in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels admissible for driving motor vehicles, the authors analyse problems concerning the effects of low levels of ethyl alcohol on driving ability. A summary of the international literature on this subject reveals: the existence of(More)
The 3Ks (kava, kratom and khat) are herbals that can potentially induce liver injuries. On the one hand, growing controversial data have been reported about the hepatotoxicity of kratom, while, on the other hand, even though kava and khat hepatotoxicity has been investigated, the hepatotoxic effects are still not clear. Chronic recreational use of kratom(More)
BACKGROUND The term "chemsex" was coined to indicate the voluntary intake of psychoactive and non psychoactive drugs in the context of recreational settings to facilitate and/or to enhance sexual intercourses mostly among men who have sex with other men (MSM). OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to review the mechanisms of action, the toxicity and the pattern of(More)
An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous identification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine is described. It includes a rapid extraction procedure of the 4 analogs from urine using Extrelut 3 columns, derivatization with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) to(More)