We exploit the modal confinement properties of metal-metal ridge waveguides to reduce the thickness of the active laser cores in both terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Devices with active regions over 60 times thinner than the free-space emission wavelength are demonstrated. The devices surprisingly show only a modest increase in threshold… (More)
Semiconductor lasers based on two-dimensional photonic crystals generally rely on an optically pumped central area, surrounded by un-pumped, and therefore absorbing, regions. This ideal configuration is lost when photonic-crystal lasers are electrically pumped, which is practically more attractive as an external laser source is not required. In this case,… (More)
We combine photonic and electronic band structure engineering to create a surface-emitting quantum cascade microcavity laser. A high-index contrast two-dimensional photonic crystal is used to form a micro-resonator that simultaneously provides feedback for laser action and diffracts light vertically from the surface of the semiconductor surface. A top… (More)
The fundamental mechanism behind laser action leads in general only to narrowband, single-wavelength emission. Several approaches for achieving spectrally broadband laser action have been put forward, such as enhancing the optical feedback in the wings of the gain spectrum, multi-peaked gain spectra, and the most favoured technique at present, ultrashort… (More)
We present the design of mid-infrared and THz quantum cascade laser cavities formed from planar photonic crystals with a complete in-plane photonic bandgap. The design is based on a honeycomb lattice, and achieves a full in-plane photonic gap for transverse-magnetic polarized light while preserving a connected pattern for efficient electrical injection.… (More)
A 3.1THz phonon depopulation-based quantum-cascade-laser is investigated using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. A gain of 25cm<sup>-1</sup> and absorption features due to the lower laser level being populated from a parasitic electronic channel are highlighted.
The identification of the lasing mode within a quantum cascade photonic crystal microcavity laser emitting at ϳ8 m is presented. The symmetry of the lasing mode is determined by the position of nodal lines within micro-bolometer camera measurements of its polarized spatial distribution. Full three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations are… (More)
Research on surface waves supported by metals at THz frequencies is experiencing a tremendous growth due to their potential for imaging, biological sensing and high-speed electronic circuits. Harnessing their properties is, however, challenging because these waves are typically poorly confined and weakly bound to the metal surface. Many design strategies… (More)
We report on quantum cascade lasers employing waveguides based on a predominant air confinement mechanism in which the active region is located immediately at the device top surface. The lasers employ ridge-waveguide resonators with narrow lateral electrical contacts only, with a large, central top region not covered by metallization layers. Devices based… (More)
Due to a technical error, the original Article contained errors in the numbering of several papers in the reference list and two references were omitted. This has now been corrected in the Article.