Rafael Zalacaín

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The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine those factors influencing bacterial colonization in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eighty-eight outpatients with stable COPD and 20 patients with normal spirometry and chest radiography (controls) had a fibreoptic bronchoscopy performed with topical aerosol(More)
BACKGROUND An inadequate response to initial empirical treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents a challenge for clinicians and requires early identification and intervention. A study was undertaken to quantify the incidence of failure of empirical treatment in CAP, to identify risk factors for treatment failure, and to determine the(More)
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious illness that frequently motivates hospital admission when comorbid conditions are present. However, the epidemiology of CAP in relation to the underlying disease of the patients is not well known. We performed a prospective multicenter study with the aim of assessing the clinical characteristics, etiology,(More)
BACKGROUND The culture of bronchial secretions from the lower airway has been reported to be positive for potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the determinants and effects of this bacterial load in the airway are not established. METHODS To determine the bronchial microbial(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to evaluate exacerbations and their impact on the health related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS A 2 year follow up study was performed in 336 patients with COPD of mean (SD) age 66 (8.2) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) 33 (8)%(More)
INTRODUCTION Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is actually considered a subgroup of hospital-acquired pneumonia due to the reported high risk of multidrug-resistant pathogens in the USA. Therefore, current American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines suggest a nosocomial antibiotic treatment for HCAP. Unfortunately, the(More)
Treatments administered to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially when used in multiple combinations, are not free of interactions and side effects that can potentially impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). We studied HRQL and its relationship with treatment in a group of 441 patients with stage II or III COPD (age:(More)
Prior antibiotic therapy, size of the infiltrate, and the person who performed the technique were the three factors that we studied to assess their influence on the effectiveness of transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA). Ninety-one patients with a diagnosis of severe bacterial pneumonia, who underwent TNA, have been included in the study. The technique was(More)
BACKGROUND The comparative accuracy and discriminatory power of three validated rules for predicting clinically relevant outcomes other than mortality in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are unknown. METHODS We prospectively compared the newly developed severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) score, pneumonia severity index(More)