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The challenge hypothesis proposes that testosterone (T) elevation above what is needed for breeding is associated with social factors, and males possibly modulate their hormonal response to variations in population density and sex ratio. We investigated the role of social environment in altering testosterone levels and aggression in a tropical, seasonally(More)
Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are(More)
Conspicuousness of courtship signals in animals likely evolved to maximize mate attraction while minimizing predator detection. It is assumed, though largely unknown, that environmental and luminosity conditions affect the detectability of ornaments and motor displays and could thus strongly influence behavior. We combined visual models and behavioral(More)
The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World(More)
Females who choose highly ornamented mates may gain resources that improve offspring production and survival. Studies have focused on the relationship between male quality and the complexity of sexual ornaments; however, less is known of the communicative content of courtship displays, and whether they indicate the quality of resources males can provide to(More)
Structural colors result from the physical interaction of light with organic materials of differing refractive indexes organized at nanoscale dimensions to produce significant interference effects. Because color properties emerge from these finely organized nanostructures, the production of structural coloration could respond to environmental factors and be(More)
PURPOSE Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images can undergo a two-material decomposition process which results in two images containing material density information. Material density images obtained by that process result in images with increased pixel noise. Noise reduction in those images is desirable in order to improve image quality. METHODS A(More)