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The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride. This randomised (using a telephone or web-based randomisation system), parallel-group, controlled 26 week trial of 581 patients with(More)
Diabetic retinopathy continues to be the leading cause of legal blindness among working-age individuals. The earliest histological features of diabetic retinopathy include neuroretinal damage, capillary basement membrane thickening, loss of pericytes and loss of endothelial cells. At advanced stages, neovascularization, the hallmark of proliferative(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes mellitus and remains a leading cause of vision loss globally. Its aetiology and pathology have been extensively studied for half a century, yet there are disappointingly few therapeutic options. Although some new treatments have been introduced for diabetic macular oedema (DMO)(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vitreous fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). DESIGN Observational case-control study. METHODS In a prospective study, 37 consecutive diabetic patients with PDR (14 type I and 23(More)
Intraocular delivery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies is now used widely to treat age-related macular degeneration, and is currently undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for treatment of diabetic retinopathy. An important aspect of anti-VEGF treatment is that while the agents are injected into the vitreous cavity, they may be(More)
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an specialized epithelium lying in the interface between the neural retina and the choriocapillaris where it forms the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The main functions of the RPE are the following: (1) transport of nutrients, ions, and water, (2) absorption of light and protection against photooxidation, (3)(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of blindness among working-age individuals in developed countries. Current treatments for DR are indicated in advanced stages of the disease and are associated with significant adverse effects. Therefore, new pharmacological treatments for the early stages of DR are needed. DR has been classically(More)
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) demands both more effective and less expensive biologically based treatments. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease is increasing as new biochemical pathways are identified. Most reports emphasize proangiogenic stimuli, with the natural inhibitory elements receiving little attention. There are two(More)
OBJECTIVE Erythropoietin has been recently found to be increased in the vitreous fluid from ischemic retinal diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The aims of the present study were 1) to measure erythropoietin levels in the vitreous fluid from patients with diabetic macular edema (DME), a condition in which the ischemia is not a(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate erythropoietin (Epo) and Epo receptor (EpoR) expression in the retina and in vitreous fluid from diabetic and nondiabetic donors. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of Epo production in the retina, we also assessed retinal expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1alpha(More)