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[1] We present here a simple and robust framework for quantifying the effective sensor depth of cosmic ray soil moisture neutron probes such that reliable water fluxes may be computed from a time series of cosmic ray soil moisture. In particular, we describe how the neutron signal depends on three near-surface hydrogen sources: surface water, soil moisture,(More)
3 With continued refinement in land surface model resolution the need for accurate 4 and continuous soil moisture datasets at intermediate spatial scales has become critical 5 for improved meteorological and hydrological prediction. The current availability of such 6 data is inadequate. Here, we present a comparison of two datasets that provide average 7(More)
The COSMOS network will eventually consist of several hundred sensors throughout the United States that report kilometer–scale soil water content via measurement of the intensity of neutrons immediately above Earth's surface. We show that COSMOS sensors must be corrected for the effects of growing vegetation. Once this phenomenon is completely understood(More)
[1] Accurate estimates of biomass are imperative for understanding the global carbon cycle. However, measurements of biomass and water in the biomass are difficult to obtain at a scale consistent with measurements of mass and energy transfer, ~1 km, leading to substantial uncertainty in dynamic global vegetation models. Here we use a novel cosmic ray(More)
Above-ground cosmic-ray neutron measurements provide an opportunity to infer soil moisture at the sub-kilometer scale. Initial efforts to assimilate those measurements have shown promise. This study expands such analysis by investigating (1) how the information from above-ground cosmic-ray neutrons can constrain the soil moisture at distinct depths(More)
[1] The cosmic-ray neutron probe measures soil moisture over tens of hectares, thus averaging spatially variable soil moisture fields. A previous paper described how variable soil moisture profiles affect the integrated cosmic-ray neutron signal from which depth-average soil moisture is computed. Here, we investigate the effect of horizontal heterogeneity(More)
The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil moisture, affect the neutron measurement and therefore must be quantified. This study investigates the effect of(More)
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