Rafael R. Ariza

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Mutations in the Arabidopsis ROS1 locus cause transcriptional silencing of a transgene and a homologous endogenous gene. In the ros1 mutants, the promoter of the silenced loci is hypermethylated, which may be triggered by small RNAs produced from the transgene repeats. The transcriptional silencing in ros1 mutants can be released by the ddm1 mutation or the(More)
Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mark that promotes gene silencing and plays important roles in development and genome defense against transposons. Methylation patterns are established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases that catalyze transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to cytosine bases in DNA. Erasure of cytosine methylation(More)
Nucleotide excision repair, which is defective in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), involves incision of a DNA strand on each side of a lesion. We isolated a human gene homologous to yeast Rad1 and found that it corrects the repair defects of XP group F as well as rodent groups 4 and 11. Causative mutations and strongly reduced levels of encoded protein were(More)
Cytosine DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark for maintenance of gene silencing across cellular divisions, but it is a reversible modification. Genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that the Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase domain-containing proteins ROS1 (REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1) and DME (DEMETER) initiate erasure of 5-methylcytosine through a(More)
Multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli can be mediated by induction of the SoxS or MarA protein, triggered by oxygen radicals (in the soxRS regulon) or certain antibiotics (in the marRAB regulon), respectively. These small proteins (SoxS, 107 residues; MarA, 127 residues) are homologous to the C terminus of the XylS-AraC family of proteins and(More)
DNA damage caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species is one of the primary causes of DNA decay in most organisms. In plants, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated not only by respiration and photosynthesis, but also by active responses to certain environmental challenges, such as pathogen attack. Significant extracellular sources of(More)
Interstrand DNA cross-link damage is a severe challenge to genomic integrity. Nucleotide excision repair plays some role in the repair of DNA cross-links caused by psoralens and other agents. However, in mammalian cells there is evidence that the ERCC1-XPF nuclease has a specialized additional function during interstrand DNA cross-link repair, beyond its(More)
Oxidation of guanine in DNA generates 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), an ubiquitous lesion with mutagenic properties. 8-oxoG is primarily removed by DNA glycosylases distributed in two families, typified by bacterial Fpg proteins and eukaryotic Ogg1 proteins. Interestingly, plants possess both Fpg and Ogg1 homologs but their relative contributions to(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark established by the combined actions of methylation and demethylation reactions. Plants use a base excision repair pathway for active DNA demethylation. After 5-methylcytosine removal, the Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 incises the DNA backbone and part of the product has a single-nucleotide gap flanked(More)
Repair of the ubiquitous mutagenic lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is initiated in eukaryotes by DNA glycosylases/lyases, such as yeast Ogg1, that do not share significant sequence identity with their prokaryotic counterparts, typified by Escherichia coli MutM (Fpg) protein. The unexpected presence of a functional mutM orthologue in the model plant(More)