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Extracellular (EC) concentrations of amino acids were determined in the rat dentate gyrus by means of non-linear regression analysis of 'in vivo' brain dialysis data, considering a simple model of diffusion through a dialysis membrane. The apparent diffusion constants (K) of several amino acids were also calculated in the 'in vivo' situation. While putative(More)
To detect what initiates spreading depression (SD), the early prodromal events were investigated in hippocampal CA1 of urethane-anesthetized rats. SD was provoked by microdialysis or focal microinjection of high-K+ solution. Extracellular DC potentials and extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) were recorded, and spontaneous and evoked potentials(More)
The supporting role of glial cells in maintaining neurons and in ion homeostasis has been studied in situ by perfusing the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) through a microdialysis fiber in the CA1 area of urethane-anesthetized rats. Extracellular direct current potential, extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and amino acid levels, extracellular pH(More)
Neuronal transmission through hippocampal subfields exhibits a high degree of modulation and appears dependent on the behavioral state and hippocampal EEG. Sensory inputs, which profoundly modify the hippocampal EEG, may be involved in modulating hippocampal excitability. Field responses of the CA1 region, evoked by ipsilateral CA3 or perforant path(More)
The physiological role of taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the mammalian brain, is still poorly understood. We have found that bath application of the amino acid taurine induces two opposite actions on field excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSP) recorded in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices: a decrease in fEPSP slope prevented by(More)
In cultured spinal cord neurons, we found that blockers of chloride transport (furosemide, a widely used loop diuretic, and the related compounds piretanide and bumetanide, as well as niflumic and flufenamic acids, used as antiinflamatory agents) prevented N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in a dose-dependent manner and are specific for this(More)
The application of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) induces a long-lasting increase of synaptic efficacy and axon excitability (LLP-TAU) in rat hippocampal CA1 area. After taurine withdrawal, LLP-TAU lasted at least 3 h. This fact prompted us to assess whether the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this particular potentiation were similar to(More)
Previous reports have dealt with the hypoglycemic properties of taurine and its effects on insulin secretion by adult and fetal isolated islets. We have studied the presence and cellular distribution of taurine in rat islets, the conditions to evoke its release, and its possible modulatory action on insulin secretion. We localized taurine by techniques of(More)
The aim of this paper is to clarify the mechanism through which the taurine analogue guanidinoethane sulfonate (GES) produces its epileptogenic effects. Experiments were performed in the rat hippocampus in vivo, using a brain dialysis probe also containing a recording electrode. Perfusion of 10 mM GES induced an enhancement of extracellular taurine levels(More)
The effects of hypotonic media on extracellular free amino acid levels were studied 'in vivo' in the rat dentate gyrus by means of the brain dialysis technique. Extracellular taurine levels increased specifically during perfusions with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate in which the NaCl concentration was reduced by 25 or 50 mmol/l (hypotonic solutions). These(More)