Rafael Mariscal

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Lipids and lipoproteins were studied in 2,153 healthy children, of both sexes, aged 0 to 18 years old, of Fuenlabrada, Madrid, population. We determined: Total Cholesterol (TC) and Triglycerides (TG) by automatized enzymatic techniques. C-HDL by precipitation method. C-LDL and C-VLDL were calculated by Friedewald-Fredrickson equation. Our laboratory have(More)
Thirty HIV-1-positive samples from Bolivia were genetically characterized on the basis of HMA and DNA sequencing, revealing the presence of B and F subtypes, in accordance with the molecular epidemiology pattern already described for other South American countries such as Brazil and Argentina. The interpatient divergence of subtype B Bolivian specimens was(More)
The effects of cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) addition during the aqueous xylose dehydration reaction to furfural are reported here. These investigations were conducted by using pure xylose and Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) lignocellulose as sugar source and H(2)SO(4) as catalyst. The research was also applied to aqueous solutions containing NaCl, since it(More)
The methodology developed for evaluating, by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, the main elements in used three-way catalysts for cars after more than 59 000 km is described. The analytical method does not require chemical manipulation of the samples, is quick (30 min for sample preparation and 10 min for analysis), precise (between 1% and 10% of(More)
A methodology for the quantitative analysis of the elements present in car exhaust catalysts by TXRF is described. Some of the most relevant catalytic components (Zr, Rh, Pd) and contaminant elements (P, Pb, Zn, Pt, Ca and Ni) on car Three Way Catalysts were quantified during vehicle aging. The study was conducted along the main axis of a Ford Focus 1.6i(More)
The catalytic activity of samples taken from an oxidation catalyst mounted on diesel-driven automobiles and aged under road conditions was recovered to a significant extent by washing with a dilute solution of citric acid. The characterization of samples arising from a fresh, a vehicle-aged, and a regenerated catalyst was carried out by scanning electron(More)
The prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was studied in parents and grandparents of 2,419 children surveyed for lipid levels. Children and their families were divided into 3 groups depending on the level of each lipid and lipoprotein studied in children: high greater than or equal to 95 percentile (p), medium 5-95 p, and low less than 5 p. Total(More)
Fuenlabrada is at the present time the most industrialized town placed at the south are of Madrid. This population has some peculiar attractive characteristics from the epidemiologic point of view. Perhaps the most important is that the majority of its inhabitants are immigrant from other depressed rural areas of the country, with a low socio-economic and(More)
Furfural can be converted into maleic anhydride (73 % yield) through selective gas phase oxidation at 593 K with O(2) by using VO(x)/Al(2)O(3) (10 at(V) nm(-2)) as solid catalysts. The use of lower temperatures and/or O(2) pressures result in the additional formation of furan (maximum 9 % yield). Mechanistically, furfural (C(5)H(4)O(2)) is oxidized stepwise(More)
This paper studies oxidation catalytic converters that were vehicle-aged in a diesel automobile. The deposition of several atoms (S, P, C, Si, Ca, Zn and Fe) was detected by several chemical analysis techniques. Moreover, AlPO4 and Al2(SO4)3 were identified by XRD. The catalytic performance of the aged catalysts with different mileages showed a similar(More)