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With no Ca in the patch electrode, two kinds of channels conduct Na in spontaneously beating embryonic chick heart cells. One channel conducts Na primarily during the upstroke of the action potential and is blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX). The other channel conducts Na primarily during the late plateau and early repolarization phase of the action potential,(More)
In mollusks, statocyst receptor cells (SRCs) interact with each other forming a neural network; their activity is determined by both the animal's orientation in the gravitational field and multimodal inputs. These two facts suggest that the function of the statocysts is not limited to sensing the animal's orientation. We studied the role of the statocysts(More)
We present a biologically oriented model that accounts for left-right discrimination in the cockroach's escape behavior. The model includes the main groups of neurons found to be involved in the escape response. Each one of the included neurons is described by the actual processes taking place in an individual neuron (formation of an action potential,(More)
We have studied the Ca(2+) dynamics of bursting-spiking neurons in the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. Neurons in this ganglion undergo spontaneous oscillations in membrane voltage with a period of 1-10 s in situ. We found that neurons isolated from the ganglion and filled with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 show simultaneous changes of membrane(More)
The serotonergic metacerebral giant cell (C1) of Helix pomatia was isolated with its bifurcate axon and plated in culture under five conditions: (i) with no target; (ii) with the appropriate target B2 near the stump of the bigger branch (CBC); (iii) with B2 near the stump of the smaller branch (CC); (iv) with a wrong target (C3) near the stump of the CBC(More)
Single-channel currents were recorded with the cell-attached patch-clamp technique from small clusters (2-20 cells) of spontaneously beating 7-d embryo ventricle cells. Because the preparation was rhythmically active, the trans-patch potential varied with the action potential (AP). The total current through the patch membrane was the patch action current(More)
In a recent article, Prinz, Bucher, and Marder (2004) addressed the fundamental question of whether neural systems are built with a fixed blueprint of tightly controlled parameters or in a way in which properties can vary largely from one individual to another, using a database modeling approach. Here, we examine the main conclusion that neural circuits(More)
Sensory input plays a major role in controlling motor responses during most behavioral tasks. The vestibular organs in the marine mollusk Clione, the statocysts, react to the external environment and continuously adjust the tail and wing motor neurons to keep the animal oriented vertically. However, we suggested previously that during hunting behavior, the(More)
The development of modern neuroscience tools is critical for deciphering brain circuit organization and function. An important aspect for technical development is to enhance each technique's advantages and compensate for limitations. We developed a high-precision and fast functional mapping technique in brain slices that incorporates the spatial precision(More)
Mechanical stimulation is widely used to study sensory encoding in the nervous system of living organisms. The stimulation of mechano-receptor neurons is achieved through a large variety of devices that generate movement or vibration. In many situations, a hard real-time (RT) control of the device (in the millisecond time scale) is needed to produce(More)