Rafael L. Lopes

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Macrophages are key cells in the innate immune system. They phagocytose pathogens and cellular debris, promote inflammation, and have important roles in tumor immunity. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can polarize to M1 (inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes. Extracellular DnaK (the bacterial ortholog of the mammalian Hsp70) from(More)
Macrophages are myeloid cells that play an essential role in inflammation and host defense, regulating immune responses and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can polarize to two distinct phenotypes. The M1 phenotype is activated by IFN-γ and bacterial products, and displays an inflammatory profile, while M2(More)
PURPOSE Extracellular Hsp70 has anti-inflammatory potential, demonstrated in different models of inflammatory diseases. We investigated probable mechanisms used by Hsp70 to down-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. MATERIALS AND METHODS We analysed cytokine mRNA levels in bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells treated with Hsp70, lipopolysaccharide(More)
The immunological mechanisms that evolved for host defense against pathogens and injury are also responsible for transplant rejection. Host rejection of foreign tissue was originally thought to be mediated mainly by T cell recognition of foreign MHC alleles. Management of solid organ transplant rejection has thus focused mainly on inhibition of T cell(More)
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