Rafael Klorman

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OBJECTIVE To evaluate deficits of executive functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) classified by type (combined [CT] or predominantly inattentive [IT]) and comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and reading disorder (RD). METHOD The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Tower of Hanoi (TOH) were(More)
We studied error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) during a discrimination task in 319 unmedicated children divided into subtypes of ADHD (Not-ADHD/inattentive/combined), learning disorder (Not-LD/reading/math/reading+math), and oppositional defiant disorder. Response-locked ERPs contained a frontocentral ERN and posterior Pe. Error-related(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we examined three important dimensions of attentional control (selective attention, divided attention, and executive function) in 25 neurologically normal, right-handed men and women, using tasks involving the perception and processing of printed words, spoken words, or both. In the context of language-processing(More)
BACKGROUND Poor arithmetic performance is among the most sensitive outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure and is also common in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure would be associated with deficits in the most fundamental aspects of number processing, representation of(More)
Forty-six Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) adolescents took a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) under placebo and methylphenidate (35.33 mg/day). The task required pressing one button for targets (p = .133), and another button for nontargets. Subjects displayed a strong bias to make the more frequent negative response before completely evaluating stimuli.(More)
A paired-associate learning (PAL) test was administered to 22 community volunteers without disruptive disorders and 197 children (7.5-13.5 years-old) presenting with the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) either in combination with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants were screened(More)
Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 23 maltreated and 21 nonmaltreated children. Children were presented with slides of Ekman photographs of asingle model posing an angry (25%), a happy (25%), or a neutral (50%) facial expression. In 1 of 2 counterbalanced target conditions, children were asked to press a button in response to the(More)
BACKGROUND The attention and cognitive problems seen in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure often resemble those associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have directly assessed the unique influence of each on neurobehavioral outcomes. METHODS We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has enhanced cognition, positive emotion, and immunity in younger and middle-aged samples; its benefits are less well known for older persons. Here we report on a randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band,(More)