Rafael Jose Esteban

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BACKGROUND In patients with chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 who do not have a sustained response to therapy with peginterferon-ribavirin, outcomes after retreatment are suboptimal. Boceprevir, a protease inhibitor that binds to the HCV nonstructural 3 (NS3) active site, has been suggested as an additional treatment. METHODS To(More)
BACKGROUND In clinical trials, treatment with a combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the antiviral drug ribavirin was associated with high response rates among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 infection, with lower response rates among patients with HCV genotype 3 infection. METHODS We conducted a study(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We recently identified a polymorphism upstream of interleukin (IL)-28B to be associated with a 2-fold difference in sustained virologic response (SVR) rates to pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin therapy in a large cohort of treatment-naive, adherent patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. We sought to(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Liver failure may cause brain edema through an increase in brain glutamine. However, usually standard neuroimaging techniques do not detect brain edema in cirrhosis. We assessed magnetization transfer ratio and (1)H-magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy before and after liver transplantation to investigate changes in brain water content in(More)
Worldwide, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause, respectively, 600,000 and 350,000 deaths each year. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, which in turn ranks as the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Within the WHO European region, approximately 14 million people are chronically infected with(More)
The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in a population sample from Catalonia and to analyze the demographic and clinical variables associated with the presence of these antibodies. A total of 1,280 subjects between 15 and 74 years of age were selected randomly(More)
The frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Spain was assessed by means of a recombinant-based immunoassay for serum anti-HCV antibodies. 836 serum samples were tested from 676 patients selected according to their risk of blood-borne viral infections and presence of liver disease. Among patients at high risk of infection (with or without liver(More)
The interactions among hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were studied by measuring HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA levels and by determining the influence of viral genotypes and mutations in HBV basal core promoter (BCP) and precore regions. We included 65 consecutive patients, 25 HBV/HCV, 18 HBV/HDV, and 22 HBV/HCV/HDV.(More)
Sequencing of multiple recombinant clones generated from polymerase chain reaction-amplified products demonstrated that the degree of heterogeneity of two well-conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome within individual plasma samples from a single patient was consistent with a quasispecies structure of HCV genomic RNA. About half of(More)
Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/microL) is a common complication in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) that has been observed in up to 76% of patients. Moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 50,000/microL-75,000/microL) occurs in approximately 13% of patients with cirrhosis. Multiple factors can contribute to the development of(More)