Rafael H. Llinas

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A tacit assumption in the design of most single cell neurophysiological research is the tenet that the electrical activity displayed by single elements must ultimately explain all behavioral responses of animals. While this assumption has been accepted a priori as a central working hypothesis by neurobiologists, not until recently has sufficient information(More)
We identified areas of the brain that are critical for naming pictures of objects, using a new methodology for testing which components of a network of brain regions are essential for that task. We identified areas of hypoperfusion and structural damage with magnetic resonance perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging immediately after stroke in 87(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE MRI has been increasingly used in the evaluation of acute stroke patients. However, MRI must be able to detect early hemorrhage to be the only imaging screen used before treatment such as thrombolysis. Susceptibility-weighted imaging, an echo-planar T2* sequence, can show intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients imaged between 2.5(More)
BACKGROUND A 48-year-old man with a past history of a car-accident-induced coma at the age of 3 years and spontaneous bilateral subdural hematomas at the age of 34 years presented with a 2-year history of worsening gait difficulties, clumsiness and dysarthria. CT scans of the brain taken during the 6 months leading up to his presentation had revealed(More)
Eighteen consecutive patients undergoing dominant temporal lobectomy underwent preoperative cortical stimulation for language localization. Patients with naming deficits on anterior (4.5 cm from the temporal pole) temporal lobe stimulation had earlier seizure onset vs those without such deficits (5.8 yr vs 12.9 yr; p < 0.04). There was a similar trend for(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Early reperfusion is a predictor of good outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated whether middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions have a better clinical outcome and proportion of recanalization compared with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion after standard treatment with intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Intravenous alteplase (rtPA) remains the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its use remains limited. In a previous pilot dose-escalation study, intravenous tenecteplase showed promise as a potentially safer alternative. Therefore, a Phase IIB clinical trial was begun to (1) choose a best dose of tenecteplase to(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical epidural steroid injection treatment of radicular pain has become a common procedure. OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical, radiologic, and autopsy findings of a 41-year-old patient treated with methylprednisolone acetate cervical epidural steroid injection, who developed a fatal hemorrhagic brainstem infarction and to discuss the(More)