Raed Kafafy

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The effect of the recently developed graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been investigated in this paper. The rationale behind the use of GNFs is their unique physical and thermal properties. Experiments show that GNFs can enhance the thermal conductivity of base fluids and results also revealed that GNFs are a potential(More)
The behavior of the accelerator grid current defines the operational envelope of an ion optics system. Under normal operating conditions, the ions in the discharge plasma upstream of the screen grid should form focused ion beamlets when extracted and accelerated through the optics. However, if the discharge plasma density is too low, the ion beamlet may(More)
The excellent heat transfer properties of nanoparticles have potential applications in various fields including biology during the last two decades. Recently, the use of various nanoparticles in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted in significant enhancement of its efficiency and specificity. In this research we have demonstrated the effects of a novel(More)
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