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The mammalian circadian clock lying in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls daily rhythms and synchronizes the organism to its environment. In all organisms studied, circadian timekeeping is cell-autonomous, and rhythmicity is thought to be generated by a feedback loop involving clock proteins that inhibit transcription of their own genes. In the(More)
Successful reproduction requires maintenance of the reproductive axis within fine operating limits through negative feedback actions of sex steroids. Despite the importance of this homeostatic process, our understanding of the neural loci, pathways, and neurochemicals responsible remain incomplete. Here, we reveal a neuropeptidergic pathway that directly(More)
Daily oscillations in physiology and behavior are regulated by a brain clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Individual cells within this nucleus contain an autonomous molecular clock. Recent discoveries that make use of new molecular and genetic data and tools highlight the conclusion that the SCN is a heterogeneous network of functionally(More)
Increases in arousal and activity in anticipation of a meal, termed "food anticipatory activity" (FAA), depend on circadian food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs), whose locations and output signals have long been sought. It is known that ghrelin is secreted in anticipation of a regularly scheduled mealtime. We show here that ghrelin administration increases(More)
Most temperate zone birds show dramatic seasonal cycles in responsiveness to light. In the spring the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis of photosensitive birds is stimulated by long days. In the late summer birds no longer respond to long days, their gonads regress, and they are said to be photorefractory. After several weeks of refractoriness birds regain(More)
Calbindin-D(28K)-immunoreactive cells are tightly packed within a discrete region of the caudal aspect of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hamsters. These cells receive direct retinal input and are Fos-positive in response to a light pulse. Knowledge of their afferent and efferent connections is necessary to understand suprachiasmatic nucleus organization. The(More)
It is well established that mast cells (MCs) occur within the CNS of many species. Furthermore, their numbers can increase rapidly in adults in response to altered physiological conditions. In this study we found that early postpartum rats had significantly more mast cells in the thalamus than virgin controls. Evidence from semithin sections from these(More)
Although the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) have been intensively analyzed, they contain a population of cells that has not yet been characterized. In this study, we examined the distribution of cells immunoreactive (ir) for calbindin-D28K (CaBP), calretinin (CR), parvalbumin, vasopressin-associated neurophysin (NP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal(More)
Daylength is an important environmental cue used by temperate zone avian species to time the onset of seasonal reproductive activity. Photic cues are detected by extra-retinal, extra-pineal central nervous system elements, and are rapidly transduced to an efferent signal. In this paper, we describe the brain locus of putative encephalic photoreceptors in(More)
We studied the dependence of the expression of protein kinase C immunoreactivity (PKC-IR) in the rat retina on the light:dark (LD) cycle and on circadian rhythmicity in complete darkness (DD). Two anti-PKC alpha antibodies were employed: One, which we call PKCalphabeta recognized the hinge region; the other, here termed PKCalpha, recognized the regulatory(More)