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Ethylene is often released during plant pathogenesis. Enhanced ethylene biosynthesis by the attacked plant, and formation of ethylene by the attacking pathogen may be involved. We defined the biosynthetic pathway of ethylene in the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, and characterized the conditions that affect ethylene production in vitro. During the first(More)
In Botrytis cinerea, some components of the cAMP-dependent pathway, such as alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and the adenylate cyclase BAC, have been characterized and their impact on growth, conidiation, germination, and virulence has been demonstrated. Here, we describe the functions of more components of the cAMP cascade: the catalytic(More)
Formulas are developed that permit the calculation of the diffraction images of truncated, one-dimensional, periodic objects in the presence of incoherent illumination using transfer function theory. Special attention is paid to the important problem of determining the minimum number of cycles that such a target must possess in order for it to act(More)
The small GTPase Cdc42 plays a central role in various processes in eukaryotic cells including growth, differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Whereas it is essential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its role in filamentous fungi differs, due to the complementing, partly overlapping function of Rac. We analyzed the role of the Cdc42 homologue(More)
Panama disease (aka Fusarium wilt) of banana (Musa spp.) has been a destructive problem for well over a century. Race 1 of the pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), was responsible for the demise of the first export trades of banana that were based on the cultivar ‘Gros Michel’. Currently, tropical race 4 (TR4) impacts the Cavendish cultivars,(More)
We implement a random-walk scattering model in a nonlinear beam-propagation code to simulate fanning in photorefractive crystals. The characteristics of the scatterers were verified by comparisons of the measured firstorder statistics of the scattered intensity with a theoretical expression of the probability-density function based on a random-walk(More)
The influence of a radially symmetric sinusoidal aberration function on the behavior of the transfer function is studied. It is shown that the main effect of the sinusoidal wavefront is manifest in the low frequency region of the transfer function with a rapid drop in contrast. The transfer function is computed via the sampling theorem for some typical(More)
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