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Cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant growth and development via a complex network of CK signaling. Here, we perform functional analyses with CK-deficient plants to provide direct evidence that CKs negatively regulate salt and drought stress signaling. All CK-deficient plants with reduced levels of various CKs exhibited a strong stress-tolerant phenotype that was(More)
trans-Zeatin is a major and ubiquitous cytokinin in higher plants. cis-Zeatin has traditionally been viewed as an adjunct with low activity and rare occurrence. Recent reports of cis-zeatin and its derivatives as the predominant cytokinin components in some plant tissues may call for a different perspective on cis-isomers. The existence of a maize (Zea(More)
The impact of water deficit progression on cytokinin (CK), auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) levels was followed in upper, middle and lower leaves and roots of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38 plants [wild type (WT)]. ABA content was strongly increased during drought stress, especially in upper leaves. In plants with a uniformly elevated total CK content,(More)
In plants, the cytokinin (CK) phytohormones regulate numerous biological processes, including responses to environmental stresses, via a complex network of CK signaling. By an unknown mechanism, stress signals are perceived and transmitted through the His-Asp phosphorelay, an important component of the CK signal transduction pathway, triggering(More)
The effect of heat stress on the accumulation of proline and on the level of polyamines (PAs) in tobacco plants was investigated. Responses to heat stress were compared in the upper and lower leaves and roots of tobacco plants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase(More)
A proteomic response to cold treatment (4 °C) has been studied in crowns of a frost-tolerant winter wheat cultivar Samanta and a frost-sensitive spring wheat cultivar Sandra after short-term (3 days) and long-term (21 days) cold treatments. Densitometric analysis of 2-D differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels has resulted in the detection of 386(More)
The role of cytokinin N-glucosylation and degradation by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) in response to application of exogenous auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] and α-naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA]) and cytokinins (N 6-benzyladenine [BA] and trans-zeatin [Z]) was investigated in de-rooted seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. cv.(More)
Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii-Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in(More)
Changes in the contents of polyamines (PAs) in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38) grown under 16 h photoperiod were correlated with arginine and ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19 and EC 4.1.1.17) and diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) activities. The maximum of free and soluble conjugated forms of PAs occurred 1-2 h after the middle of the(More)
As many processes are regulated by both light and plant hormones, evaluation of diurnal variations of their levels may contribute to the elucidation of the complex network of light and hormone signal transduction pathways. Diurnal variation of cytokinin, auxin, and abscisic acid levels was tested in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38)(More)