Radim Vrzal

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Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the expression of many genes involved in mineral metabolism, cellular proliferation, differentiation and drug biotransformation. We studied the expression and activity of VDR and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRalpha) in choriocarcinoma trophoblast cell lines BeWo and JEG-3, in comparison with(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key xenobiotic receptor that regulates the expression of numerous drug-metabolizing enzymes. Some posttranslational mechanisms modulate its transcriptional activity. Although several kinases have been shown to directly phosphorylate this receptor, little is known about phosphorylation sites of PXR. In the present work, we(More)
The small/short heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0B2) is a nuclear receptor corepressor lacking a DNA binding domain. SHP is induced by bile acid-activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) resulting in CYP7A1 gene suppression. In contrast, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation by its ligands was recently suggested to inhibit SHP gene transactivation to maximize the(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a cytosolic protein belonging to the family of nuclear receptors, controls transcription of a wide range of structurally unrelated genes. To date, the most potent AhR ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Exposure to TCDD leads to a number of toxic effects, in particular to tumor promotion and(More)
Cellular signaling by glucocorticoid receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor is restricted by microtubules interfering agents (MIAs). This leads to down-regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug interactions. Here we investigated the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and MIAs, i.e. colchicine, nocodazole and taxol on the regulation of retinoic(More)
Khellin and visnagin are two furanochromones that can be frequently found in ethnomedical formulations in Asia and the Middle East. Both compounds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, therefore modern medicine uses these compounds or structurally related derivatives for treatment of vitiligo, bronchial asthma and renal colics. Despite their(More)
BACKGROUND Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, SLC22A1) is a membrane transporter that is important for therapeutic effect of the antidiabetic drug metformin. Its liver-specific expression in hepatocytes is strongly controlled by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α). HNF4α expression and transcriptional activity have been demonstrated to be augmented by(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1)-mediated transport and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics thereby affecting the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and potentially modulating clinical efficacy. Thus, pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions can arise from PXR activation.(More)
Hepatocyte tumor cell lines lack the expression or induction properties of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes compared to primary human hepatocytes. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis, dedifferentiation and loss of hepatocyte drug metabolism in hepatocyte tumors. In the present study, we examined whether MEK1/2(More)
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