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A greyscale-based fully automatic deformable image registration algorithm, originally known as the 'demons' algorithm, was implemented for CT image-guided radiotherapy. We accelerated the algorithm by introducing an 'active force' along with an adaptive force strength adjustment during the iterative process. These improvements led to a 40% speed improvement(More)
PURPOSE Many patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer have marked anatomic changes during their course of treatment, including shrinking of the primary tumor or nodal masses, resolving postoperative changes/edema, and changes in overall body habitus/weight loss. We conducted a pilot study to quantify the magnitude of these(More)
PURPOSE The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for tumors is defined as the biologically equivalent dose that, if given uniformly, will lead to the same cell kill in the tumor volume as the actual nonuniform dose distribution. Recently, a new formulation of EUD was introduced that applies to normal tissues as well. EUD can be a useful end point in evaluating(More)
For accurate three-dimensional treatment planning, new models of dose calculations are being developed which require the knowledge of the energy spectra and angular distributions of the photons incident on the surface of the patient. Knowledge of the spectra is also useful in other applications, including the design of filters and beam modifying devices and(More)
PURPOSE The dose distributions of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plans can be shown to be significantly superior in terms of higher conformality if designed to simultaneously deliver high dose to the primary disease and lower dose to the subclinical disease or electively treated regions. We use the term "simultaneous integrated boost"(More)
The aim of this work was to quantify the ability to predict intrafraction diaphragm motion from an external respiration signal during a course of radiotherapy. The data obtained included diaphragm motion traces from 63 fluoroscopic lung procedures for 5 patients, acquired simultaneously with respiratory motion signals (an infrared camera-based system was(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) methods strive to achieve highly conformal radiotherapy, particularly for lung and breast tumours, in the presence of respiratory-induced motion of tumours and normal tissues. Four-dimensional radiotherapy accounts for respiratory motion during imaging, planning and radiation delivery, and requires a 4D CT image in which the internal(More)
Respiration-gated radiotherapy for tumor sites affected by respiratory motion will potentially improve radiotherapy outcomes by allowing reduced treatment margins leading to decreased complication rates and/or increased tumor control. Furthermore, for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), respiratory gating will minimize the hot and cold spot artifacts(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the possibility of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to reduce the irradiated volumes of the normal lung and other critical structures in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the effect of IMRT on the potential of spreading low doses to large volumes of normal tissues in such treatment. (More)
PURPOSE Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve(More)