Rachit Mathur

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Metamorphic malware — including certain viruses and worms — rewrite their code during propagation. This paper presents a method for normalizing multiple variants of metamorphic programs that perform their transformations using finite sets of instruction-sequence substitutions. The paper shows that the problem of constructing a normalizer can, in specific(More)
A design space is presented for metamorphic malware. Metamorphic malware is the class of malicious self-replicating programs that are able to transform their own code when replicating. The raison d'etre for metamorphism is to evade recognition by malware scanners; the transformations are meant to defeat analysis and decrease the number of constant patterns(More)
A malware mutation engine is able to transform a malicious program to create a different version of the program. Such mutation engines are used at distribution sites or in self-propagating malware in order to create variation in the distributed programs. Program normalization is a way to remove variety introduced by mutation engines, and can thus simplify(More)
AIM To evaluate the incidence of apical crack initiation during canal preparation with stainless steel K-files and hand protaper files (in vitro study). MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty extracted mandibular premo-lar teeth are randomly selected and embedded in an acrylic tube filled with autopolymerizing resin. A baseline image of the apical surface of each(More)
INTRODUCTION Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as(More)
The continuous development of esthetically acceptable adhesive restorative material has made a variety of tooth-colored materials available for clinical use. The advent of visible light polymerizing resin and the use of finer filler particles permit resin composites to be polished to higher degree. The effect of polishing systems on surface finish has been(More)
AIM The aim of the present study is volumetric analysis of root canal filling with cold lateral compaction, Obtura II, Thermafil, and Calamus using spiral computerized tomography (SCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS Root canals of eighty mandibular premolars were instrumented using rotary ProTaper, and the volume of the canal space was measured using spiral(More)
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