Rachelle Salomon

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The Human Microbiome Project (HMP), funded as an initiative of the NIH Roadmap for Biomedical Research (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov), is a multi-component community resource. The goals of the HMP are: (1) to take advantage of new, high-throughput technologies to characterize the human microbiome more fully by studying samples from multiple body sites from(More)
H5N1 influenza viruses transmitted from poultry to humans in Asia cause high mortality and pose a pandemic threat. Viral genes important for cell tropism and replication efficiency must be identified to elucidate and target virulence factors. We applied reverse genetics to generate H5N1 reassortants combining genes of lethal A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203), a(More)
While the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion by the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein has been studied extensively in vitro, the role of acid-dependent HA protein activation in virus replication, pathogenesis, and transmission in vivo has not been characterized. To investigate the biological significance of the pH of activation of the HA(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical management of H5N1 influenza virus infection in humans remains unclear. Combination chemotherapy with drugs that target different viral proteins might be more effective than monotherapy. METHODS BALB/c mice were treated by oral gavage for 5 days with amantadine (1.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg/day) and oseltamivir (1 or 10 mg/kg/day)(More)
Effective antiviral drugs are essential for early control of an influenza pandemic. It is therefore crucial to evaluate the possible threat posed by neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor-resistant influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Four NA mutations (E119G, H274Y, R292K, and N294S) that have been reported to confer resistance to NA inhibitors were each(More)
Because proinflammatory cytokines are markedly elevated during H5N1 influenza virus infection, the "cytokine storm" is hypothesized to be the main cause of mortality. Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient in the hallmark inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, or CC chemokine ligand 2 succumb to infection with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) virus, as do(More)
The highly pathogenic (HP) influenza viruses H5 and H7 are usually nonpathogenic in mallard ducks. However, the currently circulating HP H5N1 viruses acquired a different phenotype and are able to cause mortality in mallards. To establish the molecular basis of this phenotype, we cloned the human A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus isolate that is(More)
We investigated the importance of the host Mx1 gene in protection against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Mice expressing the Mx1 gene survived infection with the lethal human H5N1 isolate A/Vietnam/1203/04 and with reassortants combining its genes with those of the non-lethal virus A/chicken/Vietnam/C58/04, while all Mx1-/- mice succumbed.(More)
The HA of influenza virus is a receptor-binding and fusion protein that is required to initiate infection. The HA receptor-binding domain determines the species of sialyl receptors recognized by influenza viruses. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the HA receptor-binding domain alter the ability of the H5N1 virus to spread systemically in mice. The(More)
Ferrets were immunized with two 7- mu g doses of hemagglutinin from inactivated whole-virus vaccines containing the hemagglutinin gene of A/Duck/Singapore/3/97(H5N3) then inoculated with a lethal dose of A/Vietnam/1203/04(H5N1) (Viet/1203/04). Serum samples did not react with Viet/1203/04 in hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) or virus-neutralization (VN)(More)