Rachelle J. Bienstock

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CYP3A4 is the most abundant isoform of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in adult human liver. It metabolizes numerous clinically, physiologically, and toxicologically important compounds. The expression of CYP3A4 varies 40-fold in individual human livers, and metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates varies at least 10-fold in vivo. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in(More)
Mutations in the XPD gene result in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD), the phenotypes of which are often intricate. To understand the genotype/phenotype relationship, we engineered recombinant TFIIHs in which XPD subunits carry amino acid changes found in XPD patients. We demonstrate that all the XPD mutations are detrimental for XPD(More)
Human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) is expressed as two alternately spliced C-terminal isoforms, alpha and beta. In contrast to the canonical hGRalpha, hGRbeta is a nucleus-localized orphan receptor thought not to bind ligand and not to affect gene transcription other than by acting as a dominant negative to hGRalpha. Here we used confocal microscopy to(More)
A molecular model for the human nucleotide excision repair protein, XPD, was developed based on the structural and functional relationship of the protein with a bacterial nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein, UvrB. Whereas XPD does not share significant sequence identity with UvrB, the proteins share seven highly conserved helicase motifs that define a(More)
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a mitochondrial disorder associated with mutations in the POLG gene encoding the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol γ). Four autosomal dominant mutations that cause PEO encode the amino acid substitutions G923D, R943H, Y955C and A957S in the polymerase domain of pol γ. A homology model of the pol γ catalytic(More)
This study molecularly elucidates the basis for the dominant negative mechanism of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform hGRbeta, whose overexpression is associated with human glucocorticoid resistance. Using a series of truncated hGRalpha mutants and sequential mutagenesis to generate a series of hGRalpha/beta hybrids, we find that the absence of helix(More)
Mitochondrial DNA is replicated and repaired by DNA polymerase gamma (pol gamma), encoded by the POLG gene. The Y955C substitution in POLG leads to autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) with other severe phenotypes. PEO patients with this mutation can further develop parkinsonism or premature ovarian failure. Mouse and yeast models(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical features, muscle pathological characteristics, and molecular studies of a patient with a mutation in the gene encoding the accessory subunit (p55) of polymerase gamma (POLG2) and a mutation in the OPA1 gene. DESIGN Clinical examination and morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING Tertiary care(More)
DESIGN Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) exhibit mitochondrial toxicity. The mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC) transports nucleotide precursors (or phosphorylated NRTIs) into mitochondria for mitochondrial (mt)DNA replication or inhibition of mtDNA replication by NRTIs. Transgenic mice (TG) expressing human DNC targeted to murine(More)
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has(More)