Rachel Yudkowsky

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BACKGROUND Over years, surgical training is changing and years of tradition are being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hour restrictions, and the cost of operating room time. Surgical simulation and skill training offer an opportunity to teach and practice advanced techniques before attempting them on patients. Simulation(More)
BACKGROUND Establishing credible, defensible, and acceptable passing scores for performance-type examinations in real-world settings is a challenge for health professions educators. Our purpose in this article is to provide step-by-step instructions with worked examples for 5 absolute standard-setting methods that can be used to establish acceptable passing(More)
OBJECTIVES Despite significant evidence supporting the use of three-option multiple-choice questions (MCQs), these are rarely used in written examinations for health professions students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reducing four- and five-option MCQs to three-option MCQs on response times, psychometric characteristics, and(More)
Standardized patients (SPs) were used in a 9-week Introduction to Psychodynamic Psychotherapy course for 11 first-year psychiatry residents. After 7 weeks of coursework, each resident conducted a simulated initial psychotherapy session. The SPs used were experienced in simulating psychiatric disorders and were free to use as much or as little personal(More)
OBJECTIVE The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has challenged program directors to assess their residents' core competencies, including communication and interpersonal skills (CIS). We report our institution's experience using a series of standardized patient encounters in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to(More)
CONTEXT Diagnostic accuracy is maximised by having clinical signs and diagnostic hypotheses in mind during the physical examination (PE). This diagnostic reasoning approach contrasts with the rote, hypothesis-free screening PE learned by many medical students. A hypothesis-driven PE (HDPE) learning and assessment procedure was developed to provide targeted(More)
An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is an effective method for evaluating competencies. However, scores obtained from an OSCE are vulnerable to many potential measurement errors that cases, items, or standardized patients (SPs) can introduce. Monitoring these sources of errors is an important quality control mechanism to ensure valid(More)
BACKGROUND A contextual error occurs when a physician overlooks elements of a patient's environment or behavior that are essential to planning appropriate care. In contrast to biomedical errors, which are not patient-specific, contextual errors represent a failure to individualize care. OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency and circumstances under which(More)