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Much effort in recent years has gone into generalizing the classical Hamiltonian and Euler-Lagrange equations of the calculus of variations so as to encompass problems in optimal control and a greater variety of integrands and constraints. These generalizations, in which non-smoothness abounds and gradients are systematically replaced by subgradients, have… (More)
A system for therapeutic precision tinting is described. Some individuals who are subject to perceptual distortion of text no longer perceive the distortion when the text has a particular colour. A simple colorimeter enables an observer to illuminate text with light of a particular chromaticity, varying first CIE 1976 hue angle (huv), then saturation (suv),… (More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all… (More)
The aims were to: develop a food environment classification tool and to test the acceptability and validity of three secondary sources of food environment data within a defined urban area of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, using a field validation method. A 21 point (with 77 sub-categories) classification tool was developed. The fieldwork recorded 617 establishments… (More)
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AIM To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to… (More)
A case of pachymeningeal carcinomatosis is presented in which CT evaluation revealed an extraaxial, heterogeneous density over the left cerebral convexity. The finding was believed to be consistent with subdural hematoma, empyema, or meningeal thickening. Magnetic resonance evaluation demonstrated a similar crescentic lesion that was of intermediate signal… (More)