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Objective: To determine whether interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) improve the identification of HIV-infected individuals who could benefit from latent tuberculosis infection therapy. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We searched multiple databases through May 2010 for studies evaluating the performance of the newest commercial(More)
Previous place conditioning studies in mice have shown that injection of ethanol immediately before a conditioned stimulus (CS+) produces conditioned preference, whereas injection of ethanol immediately after CS+ produces conditioned aversion. In the present experiments, we examined the learning that occurs when ethanol is injected in "ambiguous" procedures(More)
BACKGROUND Despite early promise in phase II, the performance of the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant in subsequent clinical trials has been disappointing. Healthy volunteer models of emotional processing offer a potential means by which novel drugs can be screened prior to clinical trials. Here, we consider the effect of 7 days of treatment with(More)
There appears to be very good epidemiological evidence for a relationship between chlorination by-products, as measured by trihalomethanes (THMs), in drinking water and bladder cancer, but the evidence for other cancers, including colorectal cancer appears to be inconclusive and inconsistent. There appears to be some evidence for a relationship between(More)
Asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Numerous historical and prospective cohort studies have investigated the effects of maternal asthma on pregnancy outcome; however, the data has been conflicting and many studies have not used standard classifications for asthma severity. Overall, the literature suggests that asthmatic females are more at(More)
This paper summarizes the epidemiological evidence for adverse health effects associated with disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water and describes the potential mechanism of action. There appears to be good epidemiological evidence for a relationship between exposure to DBPs, as measured by trihalomethanes (THMs), in drinking water and bladder(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E is a glycoprotein that is most commonly associated with cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease risk. Recent data showing that apoE mRNA expression is reduced in the frontal cortex of alcoholics raise the possibility that apoE may also be related to the rewarding properties of ethanol. In this study, we examined whether Apoe deletion(More)
Human speech conveys many forms of information, but for some exceptional individuals (synaesthetes), listening to speech sounds can automatically induce visual percepts such as colours. In this experiment, grapheme-colour synaesthetes and controls were asked to assign colours, or shades of grey, to different vowel sounds. We then investigated whether the(More)
RATIONALE To establish whether the symptoms of reverse anorexia continue with the cessation of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in male body builders. OBJECTIVE To determine whether current and ex-AAS-using body builders score higher on the modified (for reverse anorexia) eating disorders inventory (EDI) than both non-AAS-using body builders and(More)
Stressful events during the perinatal period in both humans and animals have long-term consequences for the development and function of physiological systems and susceptibility to disease in adulthood. One form of stress commonly experienced in the neonatal period is exposure to bacterial and viral infections. The current study investigated the effects of(More)