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f B eginning in 2007, we began noticing a high level (ϳ80%) of resistance to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole among Gram-negative urinary tract isolates from inpatients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana (1). Also, we noticed resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among urinary tract isolates from outpatients in the(More)
Escherichia coli, a cause of ∼90% of urinary tract infections (UTI), utilizes fimbrial adhesins to colonize the uroepithelium. Pyelonephritis isolate E. coli CFT073 carries 12 fimbrial operons, 5 of which have never been studied. Using multiplex PCR, the prevalence of these 12 and 3 additional fimbrial types was determined for a collection of 303 E. coli(More)
High numbers of lactobacilli in the vaginal tract have been correlated with a decreased risk of infection by the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus jensenii, one of the most prevalent microorganisms in the healthy human vaginal tract, can inhibit gonococcal adherence to epithelial cells in(More)
Probiotics are microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host and are promoted as alternatives for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and other conditions. One of the most rapidly developing areas of probiotic research is in the management of vaginally acquired infections. Several Lactobacillus species produce compounds that kill(More)
Intracellular concentration of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a second messenger molecule, is regulated in bacteria by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) (synthesizing c-di-GMP) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (degrading c-di-GMP). c-di-GMP concentration ([c-di-GMP]) affects motility and sessility in a reciprocal fashion; high [c-di-GMP] typically(More)
Enolases are generally thought of as cytoplasmic enzymes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, several bacteria have active forms of enolase associated with the cell surface and these proteins are utilized for functions other than central metabolism. Recently, a surface-associated protein produced by Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 with(More)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a leading etiological agent of bacteremia in humans. Virulence mechanisms of UPEC in the context of urinary tract infections have been subjected to extensive research. However, understanding of the fitness mechanisms used by UPEC during bacteremia and systemic infection is limited. A forward genetic screen was(More)
Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC), a heterogeneous group of pathogens, encompasses avian, neonatal meningitis, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. While several virulence factors are associated with ExPEC, there is no core set of virulence factors that can be used to definitively differentiate these pathotypes. Here we describe a multiplex of four(More)
High levels of Lactobacillus, the dominant genus of the healthy human vaginal microbiota, have been epidemiologically linked to a reduced risk of infection following exposure to the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In this work, a cell culture model of gonococcal infection was adapted to examine the effects of lactobacilli on gonococcal(More)
YdiV, a degenerate EAL domain protein, represses motility by interacting with FlhD to abolish FlhDC interaction with DNA. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of ydiV dysregulates coordinate control of motility and adherence by increasing adherence of Escherichia coli CFT073 to a bladder epithelial cell line by specifically increasing production of P(More)