Rachel R Kroe

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Analytical ultracentrifugation is a widely used method for characterizing the solution behavior of macromolecules. However, the two commonly used detectors, absorbance and interference, impose some fundamental restrictions on the concentrations and complexity of the solutions that can be analyzed. The recent addition of a fluorescence detector for the XL-I(More)
A novel inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), CMPD1, identified by high-throughput screening, is characterized herein. Unlike the p38 inhibitors described previously, this inhibitor is substrate selective and noncompetitive with ATP. In steady-state kinetics experiments, CMPD1 was observed to prevent the p38alpha-dependent phosphorylation(More)
It has been reported that the diaryl urea class of p38alpha inhibitors binds to p38 map kinase with both high affinity and slow binding kinetics (Pargellis et al. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002, 9, 268-272). The slow binding kinetics of this class of inhibitors is believed to be the result of binding to an allosteric pocket adjacent to the p38alpha active site.(More)
The beta(2) integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) is a leukocyte-specific adhesion molecule that mediates leukocyte extravasation, antigen presentation, and T-cell-mediated cytolysis through its interaction with its counter-receptors, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-3. We have recently described a small molecule antagonist of LFA-1 (BIRT 377) that inhibits LFA-1/ICAM-1(More)
A computer-aided drug design strategy leads to the identification of a new class of p38 inhibitors based on the 2-tolyl-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl-4-carboxamide) scaffold. The tolyl triazole amides provided a potent platform amenable to optimization. Further exploration leads to compounds with greater than 100-fold improvement in binding affinity to p38.(More)
We report on the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 1-(5-tert-butyl-2-p-tolyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-3-[4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)naphthalen-1-yl]urea (BIRB 796), an inhibitor of p38alpha MAP kinase which has advanced into human clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Thermal denaturation was used to establish molecular binding(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by coordinate action of a limited number of transcription factors that include regulatory factor X (RFX), class II transcriptional activator (CIITA), nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Here, the MHC class-II-specific(More)
Discovery of the pyrazole-naphthyl urea class of p38 MAP kinase inhibitors typified by the clinical candidate BIRB 796 has encouraged further exploration of this particular scaffold. Modification to the part of the inhibitor that occupies the adenine/ATP binding site has resulted in a new way to obtain potent inhibitors that possess favorable in vitro and(More)
A new class of benzimidazolone p38 MAP kinase inhibitors was discovered through high-throughput screening. X-ray crystallographic data of the lead molecule with p38 were used to design analogues with improved binding affinity and potency in a cell assay of LPS-induced TNFalpha production. Herein, we report the SAR of this new class of p38 inhibitors.