Rachel P. Simmons

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A latent reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) consisting of integrated provirus in resting memory CD4+ T cells prevents viral eradication in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is difficult to analyze the nature and dynamics of this reservoir in untreated patients and in patients failing therapy, because it is(More)
Several studies have highlighted the important role played by murine natural killer (NK) cells in the control of influenza infection. However, human NK cell responses in acute influenza infection, including infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, are poorly documented. Here, we examined changes in NK cell phenotype and function and plasma(More)
BACKGROUND Technical limitations in the sensitivity of commercial genotyping methods may prevent clinicians from determining whether drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is present in patients with low-level viremia. We performed ultrasensitive HIV-1 genotyping for patients with persistent plasma virus loads of 50-400 copies/mL to(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the cytokine/chemokine profiles in response to HIV-1 viremia, and elucidate the pathways leading to HIV-1-induced inflammation. DESIGN/METHODS Plasma levels of 19 cytokines in individuals with early HIV-1 infection and individuals undergoing treatment interruptions were evaluated via multiplex assay. To investigate the cellular sources(More)
BACKGROUND Induction of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses by therapeutic vaccination represents an attractive intervention to potentially increase immune control of HIV-1. METHODS We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine the safety and immunogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' HIV-1 gp120/NefTat(More)
Eradication of virus is not a reasonable goal of anti-HIV therapy because of the latent reservoir of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells, which guarantees lifetime persistence of virus. Any drug-resistant viruses that arise and circulate for significant periods can be stored in the reservoir, limiting future treatment options, and mistakes in treatment can(More)
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